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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...atmosphere came to an end after the November Uprising of 1823 . In Warsaw, from 1801 the Society of the Friends of Science played an invaluable role in promoting academic publishing until its closure in 1831 . During the later 19 th century, without state support, the Polish School Society and the Mianowski Fund supported publishing both for schools and for research and academic communities. Influential private firms included the Glücksbergs for Polish history and literature, and the Arcts for textbooks, *music , *children’s book s, and, in the...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of *New South Wales ) in Sydney in 1826 . Independent newspapers were increasing in number, and were less vulnerable to government interference: Bent’s defiance had been squashed in 1825 ; but when Governor Darling imprisoned the proprietors of the Australian and the Monitor in 1829 , the newspapers both continued publishing. The mid- 1820s saw an upsurge of original poetry in Sydney and Hobart newspapers. The first magazine, Robert Howe’s Australian Magazine (Sydney, 1821 ), was soon followed by the first book of verse by an Australian-born...

Palmer Drought Severity Index

Palmer Drought Severity Index   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
2

...original PDSI. It also reports extreme dry and wet events with frequency of occurrences more in line with rare events. With the advent of the U.S. Drought Monitor (drought.unl.edu/dm) ( Svoboda et al., 2002 ) in 1999 , PALMER DROUGHT SEVERITY INDEX. Figure 2. Status of drought severity in the United States on 1 July 1934 . (Data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) the North American Drought Monitor ( Lawrimore et al., 2002 ) shortly thereafter, and the National Integrated Drought Information System and its Web portal (“U.S. Drought Portal”) in 2006...

Snow Cover

Snow Cover   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...take months to melt and are thus important sources of summer water for many arid regions. Monitoring the extent, depth, and water resources contained in the snow cover is done using a variety of tools. Because snow is white with a high albedo, it is easy to differentiate snow-covered from snow-free land using satellites. The hemispheric extent of the snow cover has been tracked this way since 1967 and provides an important record of climate. Snow cover depth is monitored at thousands of weather stations. These data are used with reanalysis models to produce...

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable   Reference library

Susan Dodsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...pressure, and the fact that it is unlikely to decline, many development organizations have invested in strengthening their internal monitoring and evaluation systems. Others, such as the Westminster Foundation for Democracy (the U.K.’s primary democracy support agency, funded by both the DFID and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office) have gone further, launching new research partnerships that aim to make collaboration with academic research a more systematic and long-term part of their work. 3 Researchers based in Africa face funding pressures of their own—in...

Bunche, Ralph Johnson

Bunche, Ralph Johnson (b. 7 August 1903)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,353 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Colored People Records, Library of Congress This continuing belief informed not only Bunche's activity with public organizations, such as the National Negro Congress, but also his academic work with the Carnegie Corporation's celebrated project on race relations in the United States led by the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal. The latter also led to Bunche's most lasting academic work, later published as The Political Status of the Negro in the Age of FDR ( 1973 ), which contains a detailed analysis of the societal position of the African American and, as...

Ncube, Welshman

Ncube, Welshman (1961– )   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,121 words
Illustration(s):
1

...talks that culminated in the signing of the Global Political Agreement (GPA) in September 2008 . He is currently the minister of industry and commerce and chief negotiator for his party in the ongoing talks about full implementation of the GPA and is a key member of the Joint Monitoring and Implementation Commission (JOMIC) tasked to review the stages of the implementation of the GPA and to attend to issues of continued violations of the provisions of the GPA. Ncube is married to Thobekile-Siwela Ncube, a daughter of the late PF-ZAPU nationalist stalwart and...

Experimental Research in African Politics

Experimental Research in African Politics   Reference library

George Kwaku Ofosu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,237 words
Illustration(s):
2

...observers in Africa, Ichino and Schündeln ( 2012 ) partnered with Ghana’s largest citizen election monitoring group, the Coalition of Domestic Election Observers (CODEO), to examine the effect of monitors on voter registration fraud in the country’s 2008 general elections. CODEO deployed trained monitors to registration centers to detect and deter illicit voter registration practices. Until recently, it was hard to assess the impact of monitors on registration and election-day fraud because civil society groups deployed observers to locations with a...

Teacher Education and Inclusion in the Asia-Pacific Region

Teacher Education and Inclusion in the Asia-Pacific Region   Reference library

Chris Forlin

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,613 words
Illustration(s):
3

...review stage requires stakeholders to first review progress toward inclusive education at all levels and to identify any physical, academic, behavioral, or social emotional barriers that may exist within their own context. In some regions, such as the Pacific Islands, 14 countries have worked collaboratively to establish indicators for inclusion as a guide for individual countries to select ones they wish to use to review and monitor progress toward inclusion ( Sharma, Forlin, Marella, & Jitoka, 2016 ; Sharma, Forlin, Sprunt, & Merumeru, 2016 ; Sharma,...

Ionosphere

Ionosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,086 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Electrical Engineers, 1989. Rishbeth, H. , and O. K. Garriott . Introduction to Ionospheric Physics . New York: Academic, 1969. Schunk, R. W. “The Terrestrial Ionosphere.” In Solar Terrestrial Physics: Principles and Theoretical Foundations , edited by R. L. Carovillano and J. M. Forbes , pp. 609–676. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel; Hingham, Mass.: Sold and distributed in the United States and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1983. Stewart, B. “ Hypothetical Views Regarding the Connection between the State of the Sun and Terrestrial...

The Role of Mentoring in Teacher Education

The Role of Mentoring in Teacher Education   Reference library

Nicole Hayes and Bruce Pridham

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,440 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 2015 ; Zey, 1984 ), and helping ( Caruso, 1990 ; Rabe, 2018 ). Successful relational attributes of mentors include academic credibility, motivation, communication skills, supportiveness, and empathy as well as enthusiasm and trustworthiness ( Terrion & Leonard, 2007 ). Ward, Thomas, and Disch ( 2014 ) make the point that it is the ability and willingness of the mentor to be adaptive to the mentee’s psychological and academic needs that guides the relationship. Mentoring in Tertiary Education. Mentoring is often formalized in tertiary education, where...

Prevention

Prevention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
5,661 words
Illustration(s):
1

...prevention and health promotion (pp. 937–945). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. DuBois, D. L. (2003b). Self-esteem, childhood. In T. P. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 945–953). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. DuBois, D. L. (2003c). Self-esteem, adolescence. In T. P. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 953–961). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Durlak, J. A. (1997). Successful prevention...

subliminal perception

subliminal perception   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,175 words
Illustration(s):
2

...suggest that, prior to awareness of a visual stimulus which is gradually increasing in brightness, the brain may analyse the latter's meaning and, as a result, modify its own level of arousal to hasten or retard awareness of the information that it carries. That the brain monitors and analyses subliminal stimuli receives support from many comparable investigations. Thus, emotional words, presented below threshold to the eye, have been found to change auditory sensitivity, and vice versa. By the same token, during binocular rivalry, in which the subject...

anaesthesia, general

anaesthesia, general   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,944 words
Illustration(s):
1

...anaesthesia, have become available in disposable versions, minimizing the risk of infection being transferred from one patient to another. Another major development, commencing in the 1970s, has been the increasing availability of apparatus which allows the anaesthetist to monitor routinely not only the patient's pulse rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram, but also such physiological parameters as the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. This, together with the measurement of blood loss during operations, provides an early warning of...

ElBaradei, Mohamed

ElBaradei, Mohamed (1942)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,359 words
Illustration(s):
1

...individual fuel cycles. More successful were his efforts to keep nuclear and radiological material safe from extremists, by launching a campaign to enhance the protection of nuclear facilities, securing powerful radioactive sources, training law enforcement officials, and monitoring border crossings. A pacifist, ElBaradei cautioned against military action and maintained that “direct dialogue, without preconditions and on the basis of mutual respect” was the way forward in disarmament. He had been ignored in 2003 , when he had warned that IAEA inspectors...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on the effects of majoritarian electoral systems present in many African countries. However, election monitoring is also manipulated in various ways by governments unwilling to relinquish power through free and fair elections. In a comprehensive account of the evolution of international election monitoring, Kelley ( 2012 ) examined the numerous actors involved, the supply and demand factors fueling the growth of the industry, and the effect of monitoring on the quality of democracy. The positive effect on democracy is compromised because the acceptance of...

Secondary Education

Secondary Education   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,807 words
Illustration(s):
1

...17(3). 1 For TIMSS, see http://nces.ed.gov/times/. For PIRLS, see http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001.html. For SACMEQ, see Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality, http://www.sacmeq.org/. 1 For TIMSS, see http://nces.ed.gov/times/. For PIRLS, see http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001.html. For SACMEQ, see Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality, ...

Corporate Ownership and Performance

Corporate Ownership and Performance   Reference library

Jayati Sarkar and Subrata Sarkar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,323 words
Illustration(s):
1

...owners of family-dominated companies, positively impacts company value once their holdings cross a threshold (25 per cent), a result that is consistent with that of some well-cited studies in the US. The study also finds effective monitoring by financial institutions once they have substantial equity holdings. Further, this monitoring is reinforced by the extent of debt holdings by these institutions. The overall evidence, confirmed by later studies using more recent data, points to the positive role that can be played by blockholders in mitigating managerial...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,084 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and vulnerabilities to periods of climate stress. Adaptive responses for changes in climate will thus need to include ways to reduce risks associated with change including improved climate monitoring, data acquisition, and information sharing. Simple Early Warning Systems, based on climate and food estimates, may now have to be expanded to include creative ways of monitoring a range of other risk factors coupled to climate change and variability including improved and accessible information on childhood nutrition, social welfare status in communities,...

Russo-Japanese war

Russo-Japanese war (1904–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,104 words
Illustration(s):
1

...circumnavigating the world, the Russian fleet was surprised by the Japanese in the Straits of Tsushima between Korea and Japan. Vice Adm Zinoviy Rozhdestvenskiy commanded the Russian force. His eight battleships, nine cruisers (only one of them armoured), three coast defence monitors, and an assortment of other ships ran into Adm Togo's four battleships and 24 cruisers, eight of them armoured. The Russians had 228 guns to the Japanese 910 but their strength in big guns—8 to 12 inch—was almost equal, with 54 Russian to 60 Japanese. At 07.00 on 27 May the...

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