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46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( Flos Sanctorum ) in Tamil followed in 1580 and 1586 respectively. All these books were prepared in accordance with instructions issued in 1575 by Alessandro Valignano , who was responsible for all Jesuit missions in Southeast and East Asia between 1573 and 1606 (Wicki, x. 269, 334). He would also play a crucial role in the beginnings of missionary printing in China and Japan. The first publication in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History , 11 (1980), 265–86 N. Harris , ‘ Sopravvivenze e scomparse delle testimonianze del Morgante di Luigi Pulci ’, Rinascimento , 45 (2005), 179–245 L. Hellinga , ‘The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print’, in A Potencie of Life , ed. N. Barker (1993) X. Hermand et al ., ‘Les Politiques éditoriales dans l’Europe des imprimeurs au XV e siècle: un projet de recherches, en cours’, Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique , 87 (2009), 75–82 R. Hirsch , Printing, Selling and Reading 1450–1550 , 2e (1974) ISTC K. Jensen , ‘Printing the...

News Agencies from Telegraph Bureaus to Cyberfactories

News Agencies from Telegraph Bureaus to Cyberfactories   Reference library

Terhi Rantanen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,943 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Strukturen und Arbeitsweisen von Nachrichtenagenturen am Beispiel von AP und dpa . Cologne, Germany: Böhlau. Willig, I. (2012). Newsroom ethnography in a field perspective . Journalism, 14 (3), 372–387. Xin, X. (2006). A developing market in news: Xinhua News Agency and Chinese newspapers . Media, Culture & Society, 28 (1), 45–66. Xin, X. (2012). How the market is changing China’s news: The case of Xinhua News Agency . Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Terhi...

payback period method

payback period method   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
277 words
Illustration(s):
2

... techniques at the same time, even though they are very different methods of capital budgeting ( see discounted payback method ). Example A hospital is considering the purchase of a new X-ray machine for £50,000. The annual cash savings from the new machine are estimated at £20,000. payback = initial capital investment / annual cash inflows payback = £ 50,000 / £ 20,000 = 2.5 The hospital will therefore recover its investment in 2.5 years. On this basis, it is difficult to say whether the hospital should buy the new machine. Most managers would see a...

Measuring Health Utility in Economics

Measuring Health Utility in Economics   Reference library

José Luis Pinto Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,224 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Subjects were presented with several health states (e.g., living with migraine x days per week). Subjects were asked (in one case) three TTO questions (e.g., living x years with migraine 4.5 days per week versus y years in full health). They used three values for x : 5, 10, and 20 years. The pattern was very clear: subjects produce a higher value for y for higher values of x . However, in a direct choice, they preferred the profile with the shorter value of x . Subjects were not willing to modify their responses even when they acknowledged that...

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference   Reference library

Noémi Kreif and Karla DiazOrdaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,654 words
Illustration(s):
11

...= 1 , X ] − E [ Y | A = 0 , X ] , reducing the problem to one of estimation of these conditional expectations ( Hill, 2011 ; Imbens & Wooldridge, 2009 ). Denoting the true conditional expectation function for the observed outcome as μ ( A , X ) = E [ Y | A , X ]  , the regression estimator for the ATE can be obtained as ψ ^ r e g = 1 N ∑ i = 1 N { μ ^ ( A = 1 , X i ) − μ ^ ( A = 0 , X i ) } , (7) where μ ^ ( A = a , X = x ) can be interpreted as the predicted potential outcome for level a of the treatment among individuals with covariates X = x , and...

Health Policy and Finance Challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Economic Perspective

Health Policy and Finance Challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Economic Perspective   Reference library

André Medici and Maureen Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
14,843 words
Illustration(s):
17

...Financing of Public Health Spending in LAC Countries: 2015 Countries SHI Tax Revenues Argentina X X Bahamas X Barbados X Belize X X Bolivia X X Brazil X Chile X Colombia X Costa Rica X D. Republic X Dominica X Ecuador X El Salvador X Guatemala X Guyana X Haiti X Honduras X Jamaica X Mexico X X Nicaragua X X Panama X Paraguay X X Peru X X St. Kitts and Nevis X X St. Vincent and Grenadines X St. Lucia X X Suriname X X Trinidad and Tobago X X Uruguay X X Venezuela X ...

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence   Reference library

Titus J. Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
29,925 words
Illustration(s):
41

...17 in the main text. Consumption: The comparative dynamic effect of the minimum school-leaving age S on the optimal consumption path X C ( t ) is given by       −   1 q A ( t ) ∂ 2 U ∂ X C 2 e − ρ t − q h / a ( t ) ∂ 2 d H ∂ X C 2   ∂ X C ( t ) ∂ S ¯ = −   1 q A ( t ) 2 ∂ U ∂ X C e − ρ t ×   ∂ q A ( t ) ∂ S ¯ −   ∂ d H ∂ X C   ×   ∂ q h / a ( t ) ∂ S ¯ +   1 q A ( t ) ∂ 2 U ∂ X C ∂ H − q h / a ( t ) ∂ 2 d H ∂ H ∂ X C ×   ∂ H ( t ) ∂ S ¯ (33) where the term on the LHS of Equation 33 is positive under the plausible assumptions of diminishing marginal...

Koopmans, Tjalling Charles

Koopmans, Tjalling Charles (1910–85)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,230 words
Illustration(s):
12

...subsumes the above demand-and-supply model as a special case: Here, y t1 and y t2 stand for the quantity and price (of wheat, say) at time t , x t1 ≡ 1 is the constant term, x t2 is rainfall and x t3 another variable, at time t , and the ∊ tj are random variables with zero means. The first equation is the demand function, the second equation the supply function. The y tj are the endogenous, and the x tj the exogenous variables in the system (S), which Koopmans called the ‘structure’. Provided ϒ 21 ≠ ϒ 22 (the demand and supply curves are not...

Valuation of Health Risks

Valuation of Health Risks   Reference library

Henrik Andersson, Arne Risa Hole, and Mikael Svensson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,487 words
Illustration(s):
33

...$X to participate in the program, where X ranged from $10 to $2,000 per year. If they answered yes (no) to the initial WTP question, a second question followed in which they were asked if they would participate in the program if the cost was $X × 2 ( $X × 0.5 ). To set the range of the initial cost (bid) vector, the authors assessed the implicit minimum and maximum value per statistical illness covered. With a range from $10 to $2,000, the implicit value ranges from < $50,000 (which results from not paying $10 for the 2/10,000 risk reduction) to > $20...

Vietnam

Vietnam   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on “gender and development,” and more recently on the nature of the Vietnamese family. For the French period, the late 1800s and the first half of the 20th century, we used mainly the works of Jacobus X . ( 1898 , writing as “A French Army-Surgeon”) and Annick Guénel ( 1997 ). For the Vietnam War period, a major resource was Saigon After Dark by Philip Marnais ( 1967 ). We emphasize that neither Jacobus X. nor Philip Marnais are acknowledged anthropologists or ethnologists. Although their writings are quite sensationalistic and written from the point of...

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
26,260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...7.5 Over 5 6.8 ( IES2 Table 5, p. 916) Figure 15 Satisfaction with Frequency of Making Love, by Sex and by Three Groups of Frequency Frequency of Making Love Prefer Less Often Content with Current Prefer More Often Men About 3x/month 2% 46% 53% 1–2x/week 1 73 26 About 3x/week 2 86 12 Women About 3x/month 2 76 22 1–2x/week 1 91 8 About 3x/week 7 91 2 Source : Sandfort & van Zessen ( 1991 , 107, Fig. 4.2). ( IES2 Fig. 10, p. 916) Abstinence in these stable relations is nonexistent, when defined as refraining from all sensual body contact (hugging, kissing,...

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments   Reference library

Deborah J. Street and Rosalie Viney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,342 words
Illustration(s):
9

... n is given by π n j = ∫ p n j ( z ) ϕ ( z 1 ) ϕ ( z 2 ) … ϕ ( z p ) d z , where p n j ( z ) = exp ( x j β ) ∑ i exp ( x i β ) . For each choice set, the corresponding information matrix is denoted by I θ ( X n ) 3 , where I θ ( X n ) = M ′ n Δ n − 1 M n M ′ n Δ n − 1 Q n Q n ′ Δ n − 1 M n Q n ′ Δ n − 1 Q n , (2) with M n = ∫ ( diag ( p n , z ) − p n , z p ′ n , z ) X n f ( z 1 ) ϕ ( z 2 ) … f ( z p ) d z ,   Q n = ∫ ( diag ( p n , z ) − p n , z p ′ n , z ) X n Z f ( z 1 ) ϕ ( z 2 ) … f ( z p ) d z , p n , z = ( p n 1 ( z ) , ( p n 2 ( z ) , … , p n m ( z ) )...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
23,729 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Sexual Information (in Percentages) for 1,902 First-Year Black University Students Source Friends Topic Mothers Schools Same Sex Other Sex Mass Media Other Intercourse 33.4 20.7 Pregnancy 28.7 24.3 Males 8.3 Females 20.4 Abortion 21.2 c. 21.7 30.1 STDs 28.5 c. 17.1 27.2 Menstruation 28.2 c. 33.0 Erection c. 38.0 20.8 Female prostitution c. 27.3 37.0 Male homosexuality c. 20.9 43.0 Lesbianism c. 23.5 57.0 AIDS c. 4.5 61.0 Preferred Source of Information about Sexuality . The preferred source of sex information for this sample is school training, 27.5%;...

Heterogeneity in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Heterogeneity in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis   Reference library

Ciaran N. Kohli-Lynch and Andrew H. Briggs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,728 words
Illustration(s):
28

...that explanatory variables can be included in the regression model to elicit the effect of covariates on cost-effectiveness. An example of such a regression model, with p covariates, is presented in Model 2. N M B i = α   +   ∑ j = 1 p β j x i , j + δ t i + ε i (2) Inclusion of the p predictors, x 1 through x p , in Model 2 controls for variables that may confound estimates of δ . The regression coefficients, β j , represent the unitary effect of the covariates on cost-effectiveness. However, individuals are typically randomized into treatment...

Adolescents

Adolescents   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
22,463 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 2007 , for a detailed description of the evaluation. Title X Established by Congress in 1970 , Title X of the Public Service Act offers affordable, confidential family planning and preventive health screenings to low-income women and adolescents. Title X Family Planning Clinics provide contraceptive and education services that prevent unintended pregnancies, as well as testing and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (Center for Reproductive Rights, 2004 ). In 1981 , Congress amended Title X to require grantees to encourage minors to seek family...

Noncompliance and Missing Data in Health Economic Evaluation

Noncompliance and Missing Data in Health Economic Evaluation   Reference library

Karla DiazOrdaz and Richard Grieve

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
13,403 words
Illustration(s):
9

...outcome is fully observed, but we have missing values in the covariates that appear in the substantive model. The second is when the survival time has missing values. In some settings, covariates X included in a Cox proportional hazards model have missing values; White and Royston ( 2009 ) show that when imputing either a normally distributed or binary covariate X , we should use a linear (or logistic) regression imputation model, with Y and the baseline cumulative hazard function as covariates. To implement this, we have to estimate the baseline...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1990 to 2012 . Figure 1 maps ENEP (vote fragmentation) on the x -axis and ENLP (legislative fragmentation) on the y -axis for individual elections. Competitive two-party systems would generally have ENLP and ENEP values of around 2, with ENEP slightly higher than ENLP. For instance, in Ghana from 1996 to 2013 , ENEP has ranged between 2.13 to 2.64 and ENLP between 1.87 and 2.16. The red line in this graph represents a proportional system in which X percent of the vote translates into X percent of seats. Figure 1. Party system fragmentation and...

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