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Korean war

Korean war (1950–3)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...He withdrew his line 150 miles (241 km) south below the Han, abandoning Seoul. Almond's X Corps in the north-east began a closely contested withdrawal to the coast. Many in the UN Command believed that they would be driven out of Korea altogether. The Korean war , 1950–1. The UN forces moved in trucks. The Chinese marched. When the latter again closed on the UN and ROK positions in January 1951 , they were suffering from exposure in temperatures often below 20 °C at night, lacking proper clothing and supplies. P'eng asked for a pause but Mao urged him...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla . 5 vols. Madrid, Spain: Real Academia de Historia, 1861–1903. Crónica de Alfonso X . In Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla, desde don Alfonso el Sabio, hasta los Católicos don Fernando y doña Isabel , edited by Cayetano Rosell, vol. 1. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, vol. 66. Madrid, Spain: Rivadeneyra, 1875. Translated by Shelby Thacker and José Escobar as The Chronicle of Alfonso X (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002). Crónica de Fernando IV . In Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla, desde don...

Slavic Lands

Slavic Lands   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
15,013 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on Northern Orders ; Płowce, Battle near ; Prokop the Bald ; Sigismund of Luxemburg ; Ştefan cel Mare ; Velbužd, Battle of ; Vidin, Siege of ; and Žižka, Jan .] Bibliography Angelov, Dimitňr , and Boris ňolpanov . Bňlgarska voenna istorija ot vtorata ňetvňrt na X vek do vtorata polovina na XV vek . Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bňlgarskata Akademija na Naukite, 1989. Biskup, Marian . Wojny Polski z Zakonem Krzy⊙ackim, 1308–1521 . Gdańsk, Poland: Marpress, 1993. Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Moscovy, 1340–1613 . London: Longman, 1987....

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
34,325 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Blasio chronica . Edited by Adolf Hofmeister . Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum 47. Hanover and Leipzig, Germany: Hahn, 1912. An English translation of the main parts is available at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/history/weblearning/MedievalHistoryTextCentre/Otto%20of%20Sankt%20Blasien.doc . Otto I , Bishop of Freising . The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa . Translated by CharlesChristopher Mierow . New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. First published 1956. Rainaldof Dassel . “Letter on the Battle of Tusculum (1167)”. In Pontificum Romanorum...

Low Countries

Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,845 words
Illustration(s):
2

...vooral in Vlaenderen en Brabant, en ook in de aengrenzende landstreken van 1377 tot 1443 . Edited by Jean-Jacques Lambin . Ypres, Belgium: Lambin, 1835. Dynter, Edmond de . Chronica nobilissimorum ducum Lotharingiae et Brabantiae ac regum Francorum . Edited by P. F. X. de Ram . Translated by Jean Wauquelin . 3 vols. Brussels: Hayez, 1854–1860. Escouchy, Mathieu d’ . Chronique de Mathieu d’Escouchy . Edited by Gastondu Fresne de Beaucourt . 3 vols. Paris: Renouard, 1863–1864. Froissart, Jean . Chronicles of England, France, and Spain and the...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Society, 1848–1849. Geoffrey of Monmouth . Historia regum Britanniae . Edited by Acton Griscom . Translated by RobertEllis Jones . London: Longmans, Green, 1929. Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis) . Expugnatio Hibernica . Edited and translated by A. B. Scott and F. X. Martin . Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1978. Gesta Stephani . Edited and translated by K. R. Potter . Introduction and notes by R. H. C. Davis . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. The Great Roll of the Pipe for the Reign of King Henry the Second . 30 vols. London: Pipe Roll Society,...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...cost of this warfare to the French crown had far-reaching political consequences. Though a new French army assembled in 1314 to meet renewed disturbances in Flanders achieved little, the hostility aroused by war taxation forced the king to cancel the subsidy and his heir, Louis X (r. 1314–1316 ), to grant charters of liberty to provincial leagues in 1315 . That same year, the refusal of Robert of Flanders to perform homage led to the raising of yet another invasion force, but heavy rains and widespread flooding forced the French to withdraw. A further...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
40,841 words
Illustration(s):
3

...de Rome, 1988. Moro, Pierandrea . Quam horrida pugna: Elementi per uno studio della guerra nell’Alto Medioevo Italiano (Secoli VI–X) . Venice, Italy: Il Cardo, 1994. Ordinamenti militari in occidente nell’Alto Medioevo: 30 Marzo–5 Aprile 1967. 2 vols. Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, 1968. Pertusi, Agostino . “Ordinamenti militari, guerre in occidente e teorie di guerra dei Bizantini (secc. VI–X)”. In Ordinamenti militari in occidente nell’Alto Medioevo: 30 Marzo–5 Aprile 1967 , pp. 631–700. Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and defeated those who attempted to block their passage. Fortunately for the Byzantines, the Uzes, like the Pechenegs in 1047 , fell victim to disease. Some survivors were recruited into the Byzantine army. The persistent threat posed by the various nomadic peoples led Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059–1067 ), formerly a general, to believe that security was better achieved by appeasement. But even this broke down in the fiscal and political crises of the 1070s. In 1071 the Hungarians attacked the Byzantine fortress of Belgrade, the Pechenegs plundered...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Origins and Impact , edited by J. Phillips . Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1997. See pp. 5–20. France, John . Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Gervers, Michael , ed. The Second Crusade and the Cistercians . New York: St. Martin’s, 1992. Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum . Edited by Rosalind Hill . Edinburgh: Nelson, 1962. Pp. 19–20. Gilchrist, John . “The Erdmann Thesis and the Canon Law”. In Crusade and Settlement , edited by P. W. Edbury ....

electronic navigation systems

electronic navigation systems   Reference library

Alfred Price

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,088 words
Illustration(s):
2

...at about 20 aircraft), the Luftwaffe developed a more accurate beam bombing system codenamed X-Gerät (X-apparatus). X-Gerät operated on frequencies in the 66 to 74 MHz band and employed Lorenz beams similar to those used by Knickebein, but there were four instead of two: one beam to mark the approach to the target, and three cross-beams (see Map 29). Used in conjunction with a special clock, X-Gerät would release the bombs automatically when the aircraft reached the previously computed bomb release point. When the RAF learned of X-Gerät , it built...

fighters

fighters   Reference library

E. A. Munday and Johnnie Johnson

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,375 words
Illustration(s):
4

...645 hp (27 lb) bombs (242 mph/18,000 ft) UK Beaufighter 17.8 m 12.7 m 9,455 kg 2 × Hercules 4 × 20 mm (later versions) 520 kph @ 4,572 m 1,207 km 2 1940 MK1 (night (57 ft 10 in) (41 ft 4 in) (20,800 lb) 1,590 hp 6 × (7.8 mm) 227 kg (500 lb) (323 mph/15,000 ft) (750 mi) fighter) (0.303 in)mg or 8 rockets Mosquito 2 16.7 m 12.6 m 8,636 kg 2 × Merlin 23 4 × 20 mm (some versions) 655 kph @ 8,534 m 1,287 km 2 1942 (54 ft 2 in) (40 ft 11 in) (19,000 lb) 1,635 hp 4 x .303 in mg 455 kg (407 mph/28,000 ft) (800 mi) or 8 rockets Gladiator 1 9.9 m 8.4 m 2,159 kg 1 ×...

bombers

bombers   Reference library

David Dorrell and I. C. B. Dear

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,826 words
Illustration(s):
3

...mph) (32,810 ft) (1,013 miles) bombs; World's first jet 003A-1 2 × 20 mm cannon bomber. Operational November 1944 . 3. Italy Savoia- 4/5 3 × 780 hp 21.20 m 10,725 kg 430 km/h 6,500 m 3,300 km 1,250 kg (2,755 lb) 1,330 built. Later Marchetti Alfa Romeo (69 ft 6 1/2 in) (23,644 lb) (267 mph) (21,325 ft) (2,050 miles) bombs; used as torpedo- SM79 126RC34 3 × 12.7 mm and bomber. 1 × 7.7 mm mg Fiat 5/6 2 × 1,000 hp 21.56 m 10,448 kg 430 km/h 7,600 m 2,000 km 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) Approx. 600 built. BR20M Fiat A.80 RC41 (70 ft 8 3/4 in) (23,038 lb) (267 mph) (24,935...

Final Solution

Final Solution   Reference library

Martin Gilbert

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,649 words
Illustration(s):
3

...decisive action on the part of governments that refused to deport Jews. All 50,000 Bulgarian Jews survived the war because King Boris and the Bulgarian parliament refused the German request to send them to the camps in Poland. In Denmark, with the encouragement of King Christian X ( 1870–1947 ) about 7,000 Jews were taken during a single night by small boats across the narrow water to neutral Sweden, and safety. After the first fifteen deportees from Finland had been murdered, the Finnish government rejected all German pressure to deport the remaining 2,000...

air power

air power   Reference library

Denis Richards

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,329 words
Illustration(s):
1

...stages of the air war in Europe the Germans displayed great technological inventiveness. In addition to the flying-bomb and the long-range rocket ( see V-weapons ) they produced a bewildering variety of rocket and turbo-jet aircraft—22 types in all. The Me262, a heavily armed (4x30 mm. cannon) twin turbo-jet capable of around 870 kph (540 mph), was produced in the greatest quantity. First operational in the spring of 1944 , it had an enormous advantage in speed over any Allied fighter and could have taken a deadly toll of the American daylight bombers. But...

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