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harp

harp   Reference library

Jeremy Montagu

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,874 words
Illustration(s):
2

...diatonic rank to play the chromatic strings, or, as in Spain, crossed in an X shape. On the triple harp the diatonic scale was duplicated in the two outer ranks, and the chromatic notes were in the middle rank. It was particularly popular in southern Italy in the 17th century, and it remained the standard concert harp into the 18th century (e.g. in Handel's Harp Concerto). The ‘arpa doppia’ used in Monteverdi's Orfeo ( 1607 ) was probably the triple harp, which survived into the 20th century in Wales and has been revived there. Single- and double-rank harps...

plainchant

plainchant   Reference library

David Hiley and Alex Lingas

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,055 words
Illustration(s):
4

...groups of notes on unaccented syllables and adapting the tonality of many chants to contemporary sensibilities. Largely as a result of the work of Dom Pothier and the monks of *Solesmes , chant books with melodies restored to their early medieval forms were sanctioned by Pius X ( *motu proprio of 22 November 1903 ) and published in 1905 (the Kyriale), 1908 (the gradual), and 1912 (the antiphoner). 4. Chant books and notation The earliest chant manuscripts contain the texts to be sung without notation. When notation did appear in the 9th century,...

Mass

Mass   Reference library

Elizabeth Roche and Alex Lingas

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,012 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., in his masses with orchestra (such as the F minor), attempts to combine modern elements with characteristics of Renaissance polyphony and even plainchant. Renaissance polyphony continued to exercise a strong influence on 20th-century composers of masses, perhaps largely because of the *motu proprio ( 1903 ) of Pope Pius X, which emphasized that plainchant and polyphony were the true music of the church and discouraged the use of orchestral masses. Duruflé's Missa cum jubilo is a good example of a modern mass setting strongly influenced by ...

melody

melody   Reference library

Arnold Whittall

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,631 words
Illustration(s):
9

...of the first and second minuets in the central movement of Mozart's Piano Sonata in E♭ k 282/189 g (Ex. 6 a ), it is clear that the different polyphonic implications of single-line melodies provide a common shape which contributes to the music's coherence (Ex. 6 b : compare x and y in each case). Similarly, the form of a melody is inherently tied to other properties of musical structure. Melodic patterns like ABA and AAB are perceived as structural, even as textural, patterns. Ex. 7 a , for example, in a simple AA pattern, may appear in an actual piece...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Harvey Turnbull/Paul Sparks/R (1, 2, 5, 6, 8(ii)), James Tyler/R (3, 4), Tony Bacon/R (7), Oleg V. Timofeyev (8(i)), Gerhard Kubik/R (8(iii)), Thomas F. Heck (Bibliography)

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,769 words
Illustration(s):
1

...For a time the improvements brought about by Torres remained confined to Spain, where a number of distinguished makers succeeded him: Vicente Arias, Manuel Ramírez, Enrique García, Marcelo Barbero and—active in the mid-20th century—José Ramírez, Manuel Contreras, Marcelino López Nieto, and others. The revival of interest in the guitar in the 20th century resulted in the appearance of outstanding makers in other countries: Hermann Hauser (Germany), Robert Bouchet (France), David Rubio and Paul Fischer (England), and others in Japan, where the instrument is...

Trumpet

Trumpet   Reference library

Margaret Sarkissian and Edward H. Tarr

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,279 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for Heinisch and his colleagues ascend consistently as high as the 20th and sometimes the 24th partial. The period between about 1720 and 1780 saw both the zenith and the decline of the Baroque trumpet. The technique of playing in the clarino register was developed to the fullest in Vienna and other centres including Salzburg and Fulda. Concertos in which the trumpet is asked to play in the fourth and fifth octaves of its harmonic series were written by Michael Haydn, Reutter, F.X. Richter, and Joseph Riepel. In the slow movement of Reutter’s Servizio...

Oboe

Oboe   Reference library

Janet K. Page, Jeremy Montagu, Geoffrey Burgess, Bruce Haynes, Geoffrey Burgess, and Michael Finkelman

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
21,623 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Karl Steins (1919–2009) and Lothar Koch (1935–2003), principals of the Berlin Philharmonic under Karajan, set a new direction for oboe playing in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. While large numbers of oboes for military and educational use were produced by firms such as Kohlert in Graslitz (up to World War II), Couesnon in France, Fox in the USA, and the British firm of Boosey and Hawkes, 20th-century manufacture of oboes for the professional market remained largely in the hands of three French manufacturers: Lorée (est. 1881), Rigoutat (est....

Clarinet

Clarinet   Reference library

Janet K. Page, K.A. Gourlay, Roger Blench, Nicholas Shackleton, and Albert R. Rice

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
13,100 words
Illustration(s):
1

...F: from mid- to late 18th century D: late 18th century; rare Bass clarinets C: from mid- to late 18th to early 20th century B♭: from late 18th and early 19th century A: from mid-19th century; rare by the beginning of the 21st century Contralto clarinets F: from mid- to late 18th to early 20th century E♭: from mid- to late 19th century Contrabass (pedal) clarinets C: from early 19th to early 20th century B♭: from mid-19th century 2 . Structure. The clarinet is generally made in five separate parts: mouthpiece...

Bagpipe

Bagpipe   Reference library

William A. Cocks, Anthony C. Baines, Roderick D. Cannon, James B. Kopp, Seán Donnelly, and Graham Wells

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
9,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...they are the same. By the end of the 19th century the Lowland bagpipe had almost ceased to be played, though in the early 20th century some pipe makers offered instead the half-sized Highland bagpipe blown by bellows. In the late 20th century the Lowland pipe was revived. Another type of bagpipe made and played in Scotland in the 18th and early 19th centuries is essentially similar to early forms of Irish union pipe. In 20th-century literature it was called the ‘hybrid union pipe’; more recently, the ‘pastoral’ pipe (see §4 below). A Scottish form of...

Hydraulis

Hydraulis   Reference library

James W. McKinnon

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
3,119 words
Illustration(s):
2

...On the exceptional three-dimensional views, such as that on the Carthaginian lamp, the player is seen seated at a keyboard which extends from the wind chest. There are two complementary descriptions of the mechanical aspects of the organ, that of Vitruvius ( De architectura , x.8.3–6) and that of Hero of Alexandria ( On Pneumatics , i.42). Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century bce , included developments such as the use of two pumps rather than one and of a wind chest that allowed ranks of pipes to be played separately. Hero, though writing in the 1st...

Sound

Sound   Reference library

Charles Taylor

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
13,777 words
Illustration(s):
16

...A and B are exactly out of phase with those along C and D, as is shown by the quadrants of circles. If one listens in directions W, X, Y, or Z, one receives simultaneously two waves exactly out of phase with each other; they effectively neutralize one another, and practically no sound is heard. Fig.3: View looking down on to the end of a vibrating tuning-fork, showing interference; there is no sound in directions W, X, Y, and Z. (after Charles Taylor) ‘Diffusion’ is a term sometimes used in discussing the distribution of sound waves in a hall, implying...

Clavichord

Clavichord   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin, John Barnes, Alfons Huber, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, and Barry Kernfeld

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
10,819 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Bibliography’, Galpin Society Journal , vol.48 (1995), 52–67 B. Brauchli : The Clavichord (Cambridge, 1998) L. Whitehead : ‘The Clavichords of Johan Fleischer the Younger’, Clavichord International , vol.3/1 (May 1999), 4–11 De clavicordio [I]: Magnano 1993 … [X]: Magnano 2011 [incl. T. Steiner: ‘Clavichords no.2 and 3 in the Leipzig Collection: some Complementary Thoughts about their Origins’, 41–5; B. Brauchli: ‘A Comprehensive List of Iconographical Documents on the Clavichord’, 81–92; J. Koster: ‘The Stringing and Pitches of Historical...

Computer

Computer   Reference library

Peter Manning, Anne Beetem Acker, Peter Manning, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,238 words
Illustration(s):
1

...used to operate MUSYS. A more comprehensive system, pioneered by Giuseppe di Giugno, was developed at Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) beginning in 1976. Four versions of this synthesizer were developed, known as the 4A, the 4B, the 4C, and the 4X, each consisting of a digital sound-generating system controlled by a PDP 11 mini-computer. Banks of digital oscillators and envelope shapers provided the primary means of sound production, complex timbres being generated additively. In all versions except the 4A, Chowning-style...

Organ

Organ   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
67,540 words
Illustration(s):
11

...(wood) 8 Bombarde 16 Unda maris (wood) 8 Posaune (wood) 16 Mixtur IX–XII Carillon (20 bells at 2′) Kronpositiv (high chest played from Oberwerk keys) (b) north Rückpositiv case Quintatön 16 Oktave douce (bass) 4 Superoktave 8′ (treble) 8 Flûte douce 8 Viola douce* 8 Violoncello 8 Nasar 2⅔ Hohlflöte 4 Zimbel II Cornet XI–X Unterwerk Sesquialtera VII–VI Bourdon (wood) 16 Trompete 8 Prinzipal (part wood) Fagott...

Drum

Drum   Reference library

James Blades, Janet K. Page, Edmund A. Bowles, Anthony King, Mervyn McLean, Mary Riemer-Weller, Robert Anderson, James Blades, and James Holland

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
9,683 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1984 (Stockholm, 1986), 11–28 A.J. Bernet Kempers : The Kettledrums of Southeast Asia: a Bronze Age World and its Aftermath (Rotterdam, Netherlands, and Brookfield, VT, 1988) M.d.R. Alvarez Martínez and G. Rosselló : ‘Hallazgo de tambores de la España islámica (siglos X al XIV)’, RdMc , vol.12/2 (1989), 411–21 J. Blades : Percussion Instruments and their History (Westport, CT, 1992) E.A. Dagan , ed.: Drums: the Heartbeat of Africa (Montreal, QC, 1993) C. Myers : ‘The Drum-Dance-Song Ensemble: Women’s Performance in Biblical Israel’, Rediscovering...

Piano

Piano   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Michael Latcham, Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Alfons Huber, Michael Cole, Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Gert Hecher, Anne Beetem Acker, Michael Cole, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, Michael Latcham, Cynthia Adams Hoover, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good, Anne Beetem Acker, Robert Winter, Robert Winter, Anne Beetem Acker, and J. Bradford Robinson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
25,722 words
Illustration(s):
19

...production rose only about 20%. It has been estimated that, based on comparative income levels, the cost of pianos approximately halved from 1850 to the end of the century. Table 1 Estimates of piano production, 1870–1980 (in thousands) Year Britain France Germany USA Japan USSR Korea c 1870 25 21 15 24 c 1890 50 20 70 72 c 1910 75 25 120 370 10 c 1930 50 20 20 120 2 c 1935 55 20 4 61 4 c 1960 19 ...

Bow

Bow   Reference library

Werner Bachmann, Werner Bachmann, Robert E. Seletsky, David D. Boyden, Jaak Liivoja-Lorius, David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, and Peter Cooke

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
12,894 words
Illustration(s):
16

...models for translating notated chords into batteries. The Bach Chaconne from the Partita in D minor ( bwv 1004) provides obvious instances of chords which need to be treated in this way ( ex. 8 ). Ex.8 :Bach: Chaconne from the Partita in D minor ( bwv 1004). (x) Mixed bowings. Several types of bowstroke might be combined in the execution of a particular passage. ex. 9 , for instance, contains slurred staccatos, slurs within slurs, and the same pattern played both down-bow and up-bow. In addition, the bowing pattern creates a cross-rhythm...

Bell

Bell (i)   Reference library

Percival Price/R, Percival Price, Charles Bodman Rae, James Blades, and Charles Bodman Rae

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
12,029 words
Illustration(s):
2

...is clear in the case of a bell found at Meroë in the northern Sudan (late 1st millennium bce ), on which are incised figures of captives transfixed with arrows or the sword. The developing use of animal bells is illustrated by the splendid sets found with horses in the burials of X-group chiefs at Ballana and Qustul, reminiscent of the bells shown on horses in Assyrian hunting scenes. The wearing of bells for certain dances is a very ancient custom, traceable from the Middle East across Egypt to western Africa (and eventually found in England in morris...

Harp

Harp   Reference library

Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Sue Carole DeVale, Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Joan Rimmer, Robert Evans, William Taylor, Karen Loomis, Joan Rimmer, Cristina Bordas, Cheryl Ann Fulton, John M. Schechter, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Hannelore Devaere, Ronald Stevenson, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Mary McMaster, and Nancy Hurrell

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
34,223 words
Illustration(s):
7

...42–7; vol.13/3 (1992), 22–8 O. Tackoen : Approche de la harpe chromatique: son histoire, sa technique, son répertoire (Brussels, 1985) H. Devaere : La harpe Pleyel: Origines, construction, technique, accueil (diss., U. of Leuven, 1988) P. Clement and H. Devaere : X-Harps: History, Playing Technique, Music and Construction of the Cross Strung Chromatic Harp (Ontario, 1998) (viii) Local traditions J. Koller : Das Wiener Volkssängertum in alter und neuer Zeit (Vienna, 1931) K.M. Klier : Volkstümliche Musikinstrumente in den Alpen...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
23,637 words
Illustration(s):
20

...after many years of use the tone of a violin is believed to become smoother and the instrument supposedly becomes easier to play. The Hill brothers estimated that it takes 20 to 80 years of playing to bring a violin to optimum condition (W.H., A.F., and A.E. Hill, 1931), although this assertion is debatable. Experiments show that the B1 mode frequency can be raised or lowered some 10–20 Hz by means of various structural changes. This process indicates (1) that violins played over many years slowly change tone qualities, losing brilliance and power, and can...

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