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Latino and Latina American Literature

Latino and Latina American Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,587 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to convey a sense of authentic Chicano speech patterns, Soto regularly—and artfully— includes Spanish and Chicano vernacular words and phrases in his stories that bring alive the Mexican American experience. Other writers like Alma Flor Ada , Juan Felipe Herrera , and Francisco X. Alarcón write in both Spanish and English. Aside from the taxing consideration of language, there is also the matter of the book's content. Many American publishers, in their early rush to reach the Latino market, simply published translations of English-language titles from their...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the child stayed in the quiet of his own house and enjoyed creating his own “media” experiences. The 20th Century: Transitions into the Modern For the most part, 20th-century poetry for children relinquished didacticism for delight. Nonsense verse appeared even in periodicals for children that often relied on sentimental themes and pious appeals, such as the well-known St. Nicholas magazine ( Nov. 1873–Mar. 1940 ; some issues in 1943 ). In fact, the 20th century offered poems that play with didacticism, mock stories of incautious or unpleasant children...

ABC Books or Alphabet Books

ABC Books or Alphabet Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,222 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in The Galloping Guide to the ABC (no date), A is an Ass, B a Bear, and C a Cow; in J. Evans ’s The Pretty ABC (no date), A is an Admiral, B a Beggar, and C a Cobbler. Since there are not that many animals or professions starting with X and Z , authors and publishers had to be creative: X can refer to a Xerxes, Xenophon, or Xurry; to a Xativa-gull; or to Socrates ’ bossy wife, Xantippe. In The Little Book for Little Children , “Z was one Zeno the Great, but he's dead.” The word “one” indicates that Zeno was not well known in the 18th...

Comic Books

Comic Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,242 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in comics in Britain they remained relegated to newspapers in the United States. Most other countries followed even later in picking up these formats. The 20th Century One result of the battle between Pulitzer and Hearst was the regular publication of daily strips, usually humorous, featuring Dirks and Opper plus others, like Bud Fisher ’s Mutt and Jeff ( 1907 ). Concurrently, the early 20th century was a period of innovation and boldness, most notably with Winsor McCay ’s beautifully drafted dream sequences in Little Nemo in Slumberland ( 1905 )...

Asian Americans in Pre–World War II Cinema

Asian Americans in Pre–World War II Cinema   Reference library

Philippa Gates

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
8,850 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Ahn and the Politics of Cross-Ethnic Performance . Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006. Eng, David L. Racial Castration: Managing Masculinity in Asian America . Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001. Feng, Peter X . Screening Asian Americans . New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002. Feng, Peter X. Identities in Motion: Asian American Film and Video . Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003. Fuller, Karla Rae . Hollywood Goes Oriental: CaucAsian Performance in American Film . Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2010. Garcia...

Asian American Art and Modernism

Asian American Art and Modernism   Reference library

Tom Wolf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,358 words
Illustration(s):
22

...American Art and Modernism The history of Asian American and Pacific Island art in the 20th century has been attracting increasing numbers of scholars thanks to its richness, its expansiveness, and the fact that it has been relatively unexplored. The term “Asian American” was first created in 1968 and has been gaining momentum ever since. Asian American artists have tended to be marginalized in mainstream accounts of 20th-century American art but, in developments that are analogous in scholarship about African American, Hispanic, and women artists,...

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II   Reference library

Krystyn R. Moon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
7,082 words
Illustration(s):
8

...These productions evolved to reflect Asian immigrant experiences and sometimes incorporated American forms of musical, dance, and theatrical expression. By the early 20th century , this mix of traditions reached beyond immigrant communities as Asians and Asian Americans became part of the American entertainment industry. Early-20th-Century Entertainment Industry By the beginning of the 20th century , the American entertainment industry became more diversified and embraced new performance styles and technologies. The types of acts seen in the 19th...

Global South Korea and the K-Pop Phenomenon

Global South Korea and the K-Pop Phenomenon   Reference library

Crystal S. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
6,814 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Idol Girl Group Flows in Japan in the Era of Web 2.0.” ejcjs 12, no. 2 (2012). Kim, Jeong-mee . “ Why Does Hallyu Matter? The Significance of the Korea Wave in South Korea .” Critical Studies in Television 2, no. 2 (2007): 47–59. Kim, Jung . “The Political Logic of Economic Crisis in South Korea.” Asian Survey 45, no. 3 (2005): 453–474. Kwon, Seung-ho , and Joseph Kim . “ The Cultural Industry Policies of the Korean Government and the Korean Wave .” International Journal of Cultural Policy 20, no. 4 (2014): 422–439. Lee, Jamie Shinhee . “Linguistic...

Contemporary Asian American Art

Contemporary Asian American Art   Reference library

Laura Kina

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
12,679 words
Illustration(s):
28

...Press, 2008), x. 7. Sarita Echavez See, The Filipino Primitive: Accumulation and Resistance in the American Museum (New York: New York University Press, 2017), 3 . 8. “Help Preserve ‘A Glorious History, A Golden Legacy’ Mural by Eliseo Silva!” Social and Public Art Resource Center ( http://sparcinla.org/silva/ ). 9. Luis H. Francia and Angel Velasco Shaw, Vestiges of War: the Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899–1999 (New York: New York University Press, 2002) . 10. Chang, Asian American Art , x. 11. Midori...

Cross

Cross 1.   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...tails . Marriage is worse than cross I win, pile you lose. Cross as a mystic emblem, The There are four basic types: The Greek cross, found on Assyrian tablets, Egyptian and Persian monuments, and on Etruscan pottery. The crux decussata , generally called St andrew’s cross, an X-shaped cross, found fairly commonly in ancient sculpture. The Latin cross or crux immissa . This symbol is found on coins, monuments and medals long before the Christian era. The tau cross or crux commissa . A very old cross. It is also the cross of St anthony of egypt . The tau...

Asian Americans in Opera: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

Asian Americans in Opera: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives   Reference library

Nancy Yunhwa Rao

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,374 words
Illustration(s):
10

...as debt, human smugglers, and struggles for freedom emerge from this chamber opera, which addresses many timely issues by dramatizing an immigrant topic specific to Chinese Americans. It also highlights the themes of dislocation and displacement. Figure 9. Abigail Fischer as Mrs. X.E. in Du Yun, Angel’s Bone , performed at the 3LD Art & Technology Center, Prototype Festival, New York (January 2016). Courtesy of Prototype Festival. In the second decade of the 21st century , other Asian American creators of experimental opera have also begun to receive...

Latina and Chicana Butch/Femme in Literature and Culture

Latina and Chicana Butch/Femme in Literature and Culture   Reference library

Stacy I. Macías

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
10,446 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in the War Years (Boston: South End Press, 1983), 126. 17. Carla Trujillo, “Introduction,” in Chicana Lesbians: The Girls Our Mothers Warned Us About , ed. Carla Trujillo (Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press, 1991), x. 18. Ana Castillo, “La Macha: Toward a Beautiful Whole Self,” in Trujillo, Chicana Lesbians , 36. 19. Castillo, “La Macha,” 38. 20. Hollibaugh and Moraga, “What We’re Rolling in Around in Bed With,” 249. 21. Hollibaugh and Moraga, “What We’re Rolling in Around in Bed With,” 249. 22. Hollibaugh and Moraga, “What We’re Rolling in Around in Bed...

Indigenous Manuscripts of Ancient and Early Colonial Mesoamerica: 13th–16th Centuries

Indigenous Manuscripts of Ancient and Early Colonial Mesoamerica: 13th–16th Centuries   Reference library

Angélica J. Afanador-Pujol

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
12,818 words
Illustration(s):
4

...their resemblance to this manuscript. In addition to the Codex Borgia, the group includes the codices Cospi, Laud, Vaticanus B, Fejérváry-Mayer ( Figure 1 ), and the Culto al Sol (a single sheet also known as Aubin 20 or Codex Fonds Mexicanus 20, housed at the Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris). 19 For facsimiles, see the location given in note 20. 20 While they represent a small corpus, they provide the most comprehensive documentation of religious beliefs, deities, and practices by indigenous authors. They connect believers to the passage of time through a 260-day...

Print Culture and Censorship from Colonial Latin America to the US Latina/o Presence in the 19TH Century

Print Culture and Censorship from Colonial Latin America to the US Latina/o Presence in the 19TH Century   Reference library

Matthew J. K.Hill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
30,368 words
Illustration(s):
9

... 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries . His bibliographical collections and historical essays on the development of the printing press in the Spanish empire, together with his works on the history of the Inquisition in Peru, New Spain, and Cartagena, are all essential reading. 245 For the Inquisition one of the basic texts is Henry Charles Lea’s The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies ( 1908 ). 246 The work of these scholars reflects the influence of prevalent belief about the colonial period in the 19th and early 20th centuries that Spain,...

Salinas, Raúl

Salinas, Raúl   Reference library

Louis G. Mendoza

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Literature, Literary texts, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,453 words
Illustration(s):
4

...with the Beat’s street sensibility, their embracement of open literary forms, and their down-and-out stance. As a streetwise young man, he continued to find himself drawn to nonconventional, nonmainstream music venues, and he, like Malcolm Little (who would later become Malcolm X), developed a hipster lifestyle that included the consumption and selling of drugs. At this stage in his life, Salinas embraced a culturally specific countercultural pachuco lifestyle, one that had its variants in other minority communities as well as in the margins of mainstream...

Foot

Foot   Reference library

A. M. Devine, L. D. Stephens, T.V.F. Brogan, and G. B. Cooper

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,780 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the question of what principles are used to construct the foot. Even well into the 20th c., classicizing prosodists were inclined to admit nearly as many feet in Eng. poetry as in Gr.: Saintsbury lists 21 feet; as late as 1979 , Paul Fussell admits six but thinks “it does no harm to be acquainted with” 11 others. But the great majority recognized, by the late 19th c., only four to six types: these included the two commonest binary feet—iambs (x/) and trochees (/x)—and ternary feet—dactyls (/xx) and anapests (xx/)—with the ter-nary feet far less common...

Bridge

Bridge   Reference library

A. M. Devine and L. D. Stephens

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
745 words
Illustration(s):
2

...above cannot be subsumed along with (1d) under a generalized constraint on disyllables, so that the initial heavy syllable of spondee-shaped words is independently constrained. Furthermore, in the iambographers, words of the shape – – ᴗ x are strongly avoided beginning in third anceps. In the hexameter, words of the shape – – x are strongly avoided beginning in the arsis of the fifth foot. These constraints unite with the bridges to form a finely structured hierarchy of strictness according to genre and style. The definition of a bridge as a point in the...

Scansion

Scansion   Reference library

T. Steele

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,137 words
Illustration(s):
7

...musical notes, numbers, and graphic representations. However, a simple group of symbols has generally held sway. Prior to the 20th c., Eng. prosodists usually signify metrically unaccented syllables with the breve ( ᴗ ) cl. prosodists use to register short syllables. When signifying metrically accented syllables, they employ the macron ( – ) cl. prosodists apply to long ones. During the 20th c., the breve and macron give way to an x for metrically unaccented syllables and an acute accent (’ ) for metrically accented ones. This shift reflects a growing...

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