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Korean war

Korean war (1950–3)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...He withdrew his line 150 miles (241 km) south below the Han, abandoning Seoul. Almond's X Corps in the north-east began a closely contested withdrawal to the coast. Many in the UN Command believed that they would be driven out of Korea altogether. The Korean war , 1950–1. The UN forces moved in trucks. The Chinese marched. When the latter again closed on the UN and ROK positions in January 1951 , they were suffering from exposure in temperatures often below 20 °C at night, lacking proper clothing and supplies. P'eng asked for a pause but Mao urged him...

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...problem to the extent that we are unsure of the specification of x Dt . For a pure moving average process, what is observed ( x Dt ) is hypothesized to have a distinct dynamic effect from what is unobserved ( ε ‎ t ) in a given model (for additional examples, see Box and Jenkins 1984 ). Therefore, for autoregressive processes of order p , where p is the number of lagged dependent variables, the covariate effects are captured by multipliers, not single coefficients. A one unit change in x dt will have a total impact on Y i → j , t of . For example, an...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla . 5 vols. Madrid, Spain: Real Academia de Historia, 1861–1903. Crónica de Alfonso X . In Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla, desde don Alfonso el Sabio, hasta los Católicos don Fernando y doña Isabel , edited by Cayetano Rosell, vol. 1. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, vol. 66. Madrid, Spain: Rivadeneyra, 1875. Translated by Shelby Thacker and José Escobar as The Chronicle of Alfonso X (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002). Crónica de Fernando IV . In Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla, desde don...

What is Theory?

What is Theory?   Reference library

Patrick Thaddeus Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Global Security Matrix. At www.watsoninstitute.org/globalsecuritymatrix/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Features efforts by IR theorists to identify and conceptualize security threats; draws on a diverse set of theoretical perspectives. Theory Talks. At www.theory-talks.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. An archive of interviews and speeches by prominent IR theorists. Covers a variety of approaches. The IR Theory Website. At www.irtheory.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Wiki-like collection of thumbnail definitions of different IR theories. Focused mainly...

The Spatial Analysis of War

The Spatial Analysis of War   Reference library

Clionadh Raleigh, Frank D.W. Witmer, and John O’Loughlin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,825 words
Illustration(s):
2

...analyses. Centrographic methods describe the distribution of events over a geographic space. The mean center, standard distance, and standard ellipse are the spatial equivalent to the univariate mean and standard deviation measures. The mean center is calculated by averaging the x and y coordinate values separately, and optionally weighting by population (to yield the mean population center) or other variables of interest. The standard distance and ellipse measures are used to describe the spread of the data around the mean center. The standard distance...

Issues in Data Collection

Issues in Data Collection   Reference library

Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and Kyle Clark Beardsley

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,367 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Look at Their Distribution over Time, 1816–1997. International Studies Quarterly 47 (1), 49–70. Shirkey, Z.C. , and Weisiger, A. (2007) An Annotated Bibliography for the Correlates of War Interstate Wars Database. At www.correlatesofwar.org/cow2%20data/WarData/InterState/Shirkey%20&%20Weisiger%20War%20Bibliography.pdf , accessed Apr. 22, 2009. Singer, J.D. , and Small, M. (1972) The Wages of War, 1816–1965: A Statistical Handbook . New York: John Wiley. Singer, J.D. , Bremer, S. , and Stuckey, J. (1972) Capability Distribution, Uncertainty, and...

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Jeffrey W. Taliaferro

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,750 words
Illustration(s):
2

...set of modifications to expected-utility theory that would provide a descriptive account of everything we knew about a severely restricted class of decisions: choices between simple monetary gambles with objectively specified probabilities and at most two nonzero outcomes” (2000a:x). Prospect theory does call into question the normative assumption that individuals form their preferences prior to the act of choice. Instead, it suggests that “preferences are actually constructed, not merely revealed, in the elicitation process, and the construction of preference...

Measuring Global Poverty

Measuring Global Poverty   Reference library

Shatakshee Dhongde

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,559 words
Illustration(s):
2

... J. Stiglitz (eds.) Debates on the Measurement of Poverty . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rowntree, S. (1901) Poverty. A Study of Town Life . London: Macmillan. Sala-i-Martin, X. (2002) The World Distribution of Income (estimated from Individual Country Distributions) . NBER Working Paper 8933. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. Sala-i-Martin, X. (2006) The World Distribution of Income: Falling Poverty and…Convergence, Period. Quarterly Journal of Economics 121 (2), 351–97. Sen, A. (1976) Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement...

Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation

Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation   Reference library

Jacques E.C. Hymans

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cycle. Only “peaceful nuclear explosions” ( PNEs ) for engineering and mining purposes were deemed off limits for NNWS to dabble in, but in Article V the NWS even agreed to conduct PNEs on behalf of NNWS who expressed an interest. Finally, there were two escape clauses: Article X allowed any state to unilaterally withdraw from the treaty on just three months’ notice, and it also limited the treaty to 25 years in duration, unless a majority of NPT parties voted at that time to extend it. Epstein argued that because the NNWS were generally satisfied by this bargain...

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption   Reference library

Frank G. Madsen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,475 words
Illustration(s):
1

...application of the arm's length principle. Dr Reddy ( 1992 ) , an Indian sociologist doing field work in Denmark, summed up his findings of the application of the arm's length principle and, by implication, of corruption by the use of Cartesian coordinates ( Figure 1 ), where the x-axis represents the importance of social capital and the y-axis respect for the arm's length principle (for both, the point of origin indicates the minimum). In Figure 1 , the 45 degree line from origin determines the points where social capital equals respect for the arm's length...

Slavic Lands

Slavic Lands   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
15,013 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on Northern Orders ; Płowce, Battle near ; Prokop the Bald ; Sigismund of Luxemburg ; Ştefan cel Mare ; Velbužd, Battle of ; Vidin, Siege of ; and Žižka, Jan .] Bibliography Angelov, Dimitňr , and Boris ňolpanov . Bňlgarska voenna istorija ot vtorata ňetvňrt na X vek do vtorata polovina na XV vek . Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bňlgarskata Akademija na Naukite, 1989. Biskup, Marian . Wojny Polski z Zakonem Krzy⊙ackim, 1308–1521 . Gdańsk, Poland: Marpress, 1993. Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Moscovy, 1340–1613 . London: Longman, 1987....

Assessment of Active Learning

Assessment of Active Learning   Reference library

Kay Gibson and Carolyn M. Shaw

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,786 words
Illustration(s):
3

...required to respond within the confines of those choices. For instance: What did you like best about the Peace Summit Simulation? a. Being able to come up with a solution to a challenging global issue. b. Getting to learn more about the foreign policy preferences of country X. c. Being able to make speeches and draft diplomatic documents. d. Trying to find ways to get others to compromise so we could reach a settlement. Rubrics A final aspect to consider when examining assessment techniques and measurement tools is the construction of an effective rubric...

Intergovernmental Organizations and International Governance of Migration and Ethnic Politics

Intergovernmental Organizations and International Governance of Migration and Ethnic Politics   Reference library

Michael Johns

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,845 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 11 (2), 255–70. Czáky, P. (2001) Experiences from Co-operating with the OSCE HCNM. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 8 (1), 21–2. Daag, N. (2001) The OSCE and Conflict Prevention. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 8 (1), 23–4. Dai, X. (2007) International Institutions and National Policies . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Diehl, P. (2003) Regional Conflict Management: Strategies, Necessary Conditions, and Comparative Effectiveness. In P.F. Diehl and J. Lepgold (eds.) Regional Conflict Management...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
34,325 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Blasio chronica . Edited by Adolf Hofmeister . Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum 47. Hanover and Leipzig, Germany: Hahn, 1912. An English translation of the main parts is available at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/history/weblearning/MedievalHistoryTextCentre/Otto%20of%20Sankt%20Blasien.doc . Otto I , Bishop of Freising . The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa . Translated by CharlesChristopher Mierow . New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. First published 1956. Rainaldof Dassel . “Letter on the Battle of Tusculum (1167)”. In Pontificum Romanorum...

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions   Reference library

Stephen G. Walker and Mark Schafer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,684 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in another. Analogical reasoning may be represented thus: AX:BX::AY:BY. In words, event A resembles event B in having characteristic X; A also has characteristic Y; therefore, it is inferred that B also has characteristic Y. The unknown BY is inferred from the three known terms on the assumption that ‘a symmetrical due ratio, or proportion, exists’” ( Khong 1992 :6–7; see also Fischer 1970 :243–59). Khong ( 1992 :20–32) argues that analogies, in effect, function as schemata to answer the ten operational code questions about philosophical and...

Peace Operations

Peace Operations   Reference library

Paul D. Williams

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
15,143 words
Illustration(s):
3

...new wars is the construction of legitimate political authority” the solution lies in the “enforcement of cosmopolitan norms, i.e. enforcement of international humanitarian and human rights law” that would enable the protection of civilians and the capture of war criminals ( 2006 :x, 132). In Kaldor’s schema, cosmopolitan law enforcement “is an ambitious proposal to create a new kind of soldier-cum-policeman which will require considerable rethinking about tactics, equipment and, above all, command and training” (p. 138). It starts by recognizing that...

Low Countries

Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,845 words
Illustration(s):
2

...vooral in Vlaenderen en Brabant, en ook in de aengrenzende landstreken van 1377 tot 1443 . Edited by Jean-Jacques Lambin . Ypres, Belgium: Lambin, 1835. Dynter, Edmond de . Chronica nobilissimorum ducum Lotharingiae et Brabantiae ac regum Francorum . Edited by P. F. X. de Ram . Translated by Jean Wauquelin . 3 vols. Brussels: Hayez, 1854–1860. Escouchy, Mathieu d’ . Chronique de Mathieu d’Escouchy . Edited by Gastondu Fresne de Beaucourt . 3 vols. Paris: Renouard, 1863–1864. Froissart, Jean . Chronicles of England, France, and Spain and the...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Society, 1848–1849. Geoffrey of Monmouth . Historia regum Britanniae . Edited by Acton Griscom . Translated by RobertEllis Jones . London: Longmans, Green, 1929. Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis) . Expugnatio Hibernica . Edited and translated by A. B. Scott and F. X. Martin . Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1978. Gesta Stephani . Edited and translated by K. R. Potter . Introduction and notes by R. H. C. Davis . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. The Great Roll of the Pipe for the Reign of King Henry the Second . 30 vols. London: Pipe Roll Society,...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...cost of this warfare to the French crown had far-reaching political consequences. Though a new French army assembled in 1314 to meet renewed disturbances in Flanders achieved little, the hostility aroused by war taxation forced the king to cancel the subsidy and his heir, Louis X (r. 1314–1316 ), to grant charters of liberty to provincial leagues in 1315 . That same year, the refusal of Robert of Flanders to perform homage led to the raising of yet another invasion force, but heavy rains and widespread flooding forced the French to withdraw. A further...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
40,841 words
Illustration(s):
3

...de Rome, 1988. Moro, Pierandrea . Quam horrida pugna: Elementi per uno studio della guerra nell’Alto Medioevo Italiano (Secoli VI–X) . Venice, Italy: Il Cardo, 1994. Ordinamenti militari in occidente nell’Alto Medioevo: 30 Marzo–5 Aprile 1967. 2 vols. Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, 1968. Pertusi, Agostino . “Ordinamenti militari, guerre in occidente e teorie di guerra dei Bizantini (secc. VI–X)”. In Ordinamenti militari in occidente nell’Alto Medioevo: 30 Marzo–5 Aprile 1967 , pp. 631–700. Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di...

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