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Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Reinhard Achenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

...against Moses and Aaron X 17:2–11 [Heb. 17:17–26 ] The ordeal of the staffs: Aaron’s blossoming rod X 17:12–13 [Heb. 17:27–28 ]; 18 Instructions on the Aaronite priestly privileges, the reward for the Levites and the tithes X 19 Instructions on the ritual of the red heifer and on purification of the community from contamination by corpses X The Way through the Wilderness II 20:1aa The wandering to the wilderness of Zin X 20:1ab,b The death of Miriam at Kadesh X 20:2–13 The sin of Moses and Aaron at the waters of Meribah X 20:14–21 The Edomites refuse...

Ezekiel

Ezekiel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,981 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Babylon. Size: 3.5 x 4 x 1.5 inches (9 x 10.5 x 3.5 centimeters). Photograph by Olaf M. Tessmer. Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY final form, Moshe Greenberg ( 1983 , 1997 ) is a contemporary voice who comes close to arguing for the traditional understanding of Ezekiel as the single author of the book. Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s). Ezekiel provides fourteen dated superscriptions, more than any other prophetic book ( 1:1 , 2 ; 8:1 ; 20:1 ; 24:1 ; 26:1 ; 29:1 , 17 ; 30:20 ; 31:1 ; 32:1 , 17 ; ...

Source Criticism

Source Criticism   Reference library

David M. Carr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,614 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a biblical source, much as seems to be the case with the Ezra and Nehemiah materials. Some additional cases of such independent attestation of a possible source of poetic parts of the Bible include the oracle in Psalm 89:20–38 (ET 89:19–37), which is also attested on a separate scroll at Qumran (4QPs x ) and Psalm 20 , which is attested in an alternate edition in the Amherst Papyrus 63 12, 11–19. Nevertheless, in these and similar cases, we have come a good distance from the hypothesized interwoven Pentateuchal sources reconstructed by Astruc and...

Job

Job   Reference library

Brennan W. Breed and C. Davis Hankins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,664 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and 28:20–22 , in which the nearly repeated refrain in verses 12 and 20 is followed by the answers to the refrain's questions with respect to living beings ( vv. 13 and 21 ) and mythic, cosmic beings ( vv. 14 and 22 ). The first stanza ( vv. 1–11 ) describes the hidden places of precious metals and the human quest to search them out. The second stanza ( vv. 12–19 ) is marked by the first occurrence of the refrain, “But where shall wisdom be found?” which it answers, “Mortals do not know the way to it.” The third stanza ( vv. 20–27 ) begins...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Ken M. Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,815 words
Illustration(s):
4

...“sons of light.” The sons of darkness are called the “army of Belial” in 1QM I, 1, and Belial is the preferred name for personified evil in the Dead Sea Scrolls. He has spirits (CD XII, 2; 1Q33 XIII, 2) and men (1QS II, 5) in his “lot,” and can be “in” one's heart (1QS X, 21; 4Q88 X, 10). In the New Testament the name Beliar does appear once, in 2 Corinthians 6:15 , where Christ is opposed to Beliar, but the preferred names for the leader of evil are of course “Satan” and its Greek translation “devil.” Some expressions of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels...

Acts of the Apostles

Acts of the Apostles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,662 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of historical details in Acts to probe its spiritual contents. His long poem based on Acts, which unfolds Paul Preaching at Athens ( 17:16–34 ). One of a series of seven cartoons by Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) and his studio, 1516–1517 . The cartoons, commissioned by Pope Leo X in 1515 , were designs for tapestries. Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK/The Bridgeman Art Library International in two books devoted to Peter and Paul, was part and parcel of the reception of Acts among numerous writers in the Middle Ages from Bede on. Just as the literary...

Joshua

Joshua   Reference library

Nili Wazana and Sarah Shectman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,269 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Jordan. This event, related in the book of Numbers ( Num 32:33 , 40 ) is recalled in the book of Joshua with a detailed description of the territory of each tribe ( 13:8–32 ). The territories included alien enclaves defined by the formula: “the Israelites failed to dispossess X, Y etc. and they remained among Israel to this day” ( 13:13 ). This episode in the book of Joshua does not report individual conquest initiatives of the two and a half eastern tribes such as those mentioned in Numbers 32:39 , 41–42 , or building activities ( Num 32:34–38 ), and...

Mark, Gospel According to

Mark, Gospel According to   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,839 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Pilate ( 15:1–15 ) 3. Jesus' suffering and death ( 15:16–41 ) 4. Jesus' burial ( 15:42–47 ) Epilogue: Resurrection and Its Aftermath ( 16:1–8 or 20 ) [Note: Discrepant Gospel conclusions among ancient manuscripts generally fall into the three following patterns.] a. Empty tomb and silence ( 16:1–8 ) b. Empty tomb and silence, with Shorter Ending ( 16:1–8 *) c. Empty tomb and silence, with Longer Ending ( 16:1–20 ) Mark's Gospel divides easily into two major sections: the first half portrays Jesus' mission mainly in terms of his superhuman powers, including...

Gospels

Gospels   Reference library

John S. Kloppenborg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,442 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Q not only could, but did exist. Insofar as Thomas repetitively introduces sayings of Jesus with “Jesus says,” it is technically not a sayings collection but is rather a chreiai collection. Since chreiai could take the form of simple assertions (“N said x ”), or brief dialogues (“being asked x, N said…”), the dialogical elements found in the Gospel of Thomas are fully compatible with its characterization as a chreiai collection. And as noted above, chreiai collections could easily be incorporated into fuller bioi. Indeed they already had a...

Nag Hammadi Library

Nag Hammadi Library   Reference library

Marvin Meyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,689 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Archons , NHC II,4), the Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit (NHC III,2; IV,2), the Revelation of Adam (NHC V,5), the Three Steles of Seth (NHC VII,5), Zostrianos (NHC VIII,1), Melchizedek (NHC IX,1), the Thought of Norea (NHC IX,2), Marsanes (NHC X), Allogenes the Stranger (NHC XI,3), Three Forms of First Thought (NHC XIII,1), the Gospel of Judas (Tchacos 3), and a very fragmentary Book of Allogenes (Tchacos 4). The untitled text from the Bruce Codex is also considered Sethian. The term “Sethian” is used by scholars to...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...symbolizing the presence of the deity in the temple. Two carefully hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

...that went out of use in stratum XIa. Iron II city walls were revealed in Ashdod both in Area G, stratum X, and in Area M, strata X–VII. Important finds from stratum XI include a large assemblage of richly decorated Philistine bichrome pottery, a complete Aegean-style seated female figurine (Dothan, 1971 , fig. 91:1, nicknamed “Ashdoda”), a complete pomegranate-shaped vessel, and several seals carved in a linear style recalling Cypriot seals. Stratum X marks a clear break in the material culture of Tel Ashdod as red-slipped pottery almost totally replaces...

Aelia Capitolina

Aelia Capitolina   Reference library

Robert Schick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

...not an arch, is attested by a portion of a monumental Latin inscription that records the Legio X Fretensis, II Traiana, and XII Fulminata. Jerome ( Chron. 2:201 ) reported that in his day in the late fourth century the picture of a boar, the emblem of the Legio X Fretensis, was placed over the city gate leading to Bethlehem. That indicates that the gate, whether as a freestanding monumental arch or as a city gate, was constructed before the transfer of the Legio X Fretensis to Aqaba in the course of Diocletian’s (r. 284–305 c.e. ) army reforms. One might...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,870 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of Tradition: Neo-Islamic Architecture in Cairo,” Akten des XXVIII. internationalen Kongresses für Kunstgeschichte : Berlin, 1992, pp. 425–36 K. Asfour : “ The Domestication of Knowledge: Cairo at the Turn of the Century, ” Muqarnas , x (1993), pp. 125–37 M. al-Asad : “ The Mosque of al-Rifa῾i in Cairo, ” Muqarnas , x (1993), pp. 108–24 T. M. R. Sakr : Early Twentieth-century Islamic Architecture in Cairo (Cairo, 1993) N. Warner : An Egyptian Panorama: Portraits from the 19th century British Press (Cairo, 1994) I. Bierman : Urban Memory and the...

Mosul

Mosul   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
713 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Iraq Mus.; see Woodwork , §I, A, 2 ). Diosocurides with a Pupil holding a Mandrake by Yusuf al- Mawsili, 192x140 mm; illustration from an Arabic translation of Dioscurides: De materia medica , from Mosul, 1228 (Istanbul, Topkapi Palace Museum, MS. Ahmet III 2127, fol. 2b); photo credit: Werner Formen/Art Source, NY Enc. Islam/2 : “Mawṣil” F. Sarre and E. Herzfeld : Archäologische Reise im Euphrat- und Tigris-Gebiet , 4 vols. (Berlin, 1911–20), ii, pp. 203–305 S. al-Daywahji [Dewachi]: “ Jāmi῾ al-nabī Jurjīs fī῾l-Mawṣil ” [The mosque of Nabi Jurjis in...

Ekron

Ekron   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,508 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a jar filled with charred figs, ended in a violent destruction. The Late Bronze Age is not represented in the lower city, indicating that during this period Ekron was relatively small and unfortified. Strata VII to IV represent the Iron I in fields I, III, IV, and X. Remains in fields X and III in the lower city indicate a fortification wall during the Iron Age I and highlight Ekron’s large size during this period of time. A fragment of a gate was also excavated in field III strata V and IV (Iron Age IB). Remains of early Iron-I structures, including...

Iran, Islamic Republic of

Iran, Islamic Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,089 words
Illustration(s):
3

...distinct traditions. Oil, discovered in the early 20th century, is an important source of revenue, and there are reserves of natural gas, coal, copper and iron ore. As well as oil refining, the manufacture of carpets is a major industry. Iran has traditionally been one of the most creative of the Islamic lands, and its artistic traditions are covered in the relevant sections of architecture and the individual media such as ceramics, metalware, etc. This article covers the arts produced in the country in the 20th century and early 21st. Enc. Islam/2; Enc. Iran...

Fatimid

Fatimid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,429 words
Illustration(s):
1

...son histoire (Paris, 1999) [articles from a 1998 conference on the Fatimids] G. Leiser : “ Muslims from Al-Andalus in the Madrasas of late Fatimid and AiyU-bid Egypt, ” Al-Qantara , xx/1 (1999), pp. 137–59 B. Finster : “ On Masjid al-Juyūshī on the Muqattam, ” Archéol. Islam. , x (2000), pp. 65–78 M. Brett : The Rise of the Fatimids: The World of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the Fourth Century of the Hijra, Tenth century CE , The Medieval Mediterranean , 30 (Leiden and Boston, 2001) P. E. Walker : Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid History...

Furniture

Furniture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,409 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of histories”; Edinburgh, U. Lib., MS 20), often show the vizier or scribe seated on a folding stool next to the enthroned ruler. Several new types of royal furniture based on Chinese models were introduced to the eastern Islamic lands as a result of the Mongol conquest in the 13th century, although it is not clear whether actual examples of Chinese furniture or depictions of it were imported. For example, a throne with a flat seat enclosed on three sides by decorative panels ( see Woodwork , color pl. 3:X, fig. 1), sometimes with dragon or phoenix...

Heraldry

Heraldry   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,092 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Stud. , iii/2 (1990), pp. 235–49 M. Meinecke : “Heraldry and Furūsiyya,” Furusiyya.Volume I: The Horse in the Art of the Near East , ed. D. Alexander (1996), pp. 152–7 M. Milwright : “ The Cup of the Sāqī: Origins of an Emblem of the Mamluk Khāṣṣakiyya, ” Aram Periodical , ix–x (1997), pp. 241–56 V. Tamari : “Two Ottoman Ceremonial Banners in Jerusalem,” Ottoman Jerusalem, the Living City: 1517–1917 , ed. S. Auld and R. Hillenbrand (London, 2000), pp. 317–23 E. J. Whelan : The Public Figure: Political Iconography in Medieval Mesopotamia (London,...

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