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Pashto

Pashto   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,638 words
Illustration(s):
4

...(3) p a ∼ pa ‘foot’ nmar∼nwar ∼ lmar ‘sun’ The phonemes written ǧ are especially noteworthy. They developed as retroflex spirants ŝ ẑ , and are so realized in the southwestern dialects, including the prestigious one of Qandahar. In the southeastern dialects, in Pakistan, they have largely coalesced with š ž respectively. In the northwestern and central dialects, both phonemes have become prepalatal spirants γ̌; but in the northeastern dialects, with Peshawar as their center, they have merged with x g (not γ!). The symbols ǧ thus...

Caucasian Languages

Caucasian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,729 words
Illustration(s):
4

...singularity vs. plurality, or animacy vs. inanimacy of the intransitive S or DO; e.g. in Svan: (3a) x-uγv-a 3- ver -have-3. inan ‘s/he has it’ (3b) x-a-q'-a 3- ver -have-3. an ‘s/he has him/her’ In the Present subseries, ‘to convey’ is realized by the addition of the appropriate directional prev[erb] to the basic expression for ‘to have’; e.g., in the Lent'ex dialect of Svan: (4a) a-x-u-γv-a prev -3-have-3. inan ‘s/he brings it’ (4b) a-x-a-q'-a prev -3- ver -have-3. an ‘s/he brings him/her’ 1.3. Syntax Word order patterns include A[djective] +...

Bambara-Maninka-Jula

Bambara-Maninka-Jula   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,225 words
Illustration(s):
1

...morphology, as shown in (1): (1) Active and “passive” Active n ma     jara faga I completive.negative lion kill ‘I didn't kill the lion.’ Passive jara ma     faga lion completive.negative kill ‘The lion was not killed.’ Another feature of note is a reduplication construction X o X (e.g. don o don ‘every/whatever day’), which was used in Culy 1985 to argue that the vocabulary of Bambara is not context-free. 4. Syntax Word order in BMJ is very rigid. Sentence order is S Aux O V PP Adv. Just as the verb separates its modifiers, so too does the noun...

Sanskrit

Sanskrit   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,762 words
Illustration(s):
5

... ‘keeps on going’, bo-bhav-ī-ti ‘keeps on becoming’ (18) causative gam-aya-ti ‘X makes Y go’, bhāv-aya-ti ‘X makes Y be/become’ (19) desiderative ji-gam-i-ṣa-ti ‘X himself wants to go’, bu-bhū-ṣa-ti ‘X himself wants to be/become’ Each tense or mood had three persons, first, second, and third, and three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. Each tense or mood could also be conjugated in two voices, active and middle, with different terminations: (20) gacch-a-ti/gacch-a-te ‘goes’, bhav-a-ti/bhav-a-te ‘is/becomes’ There were a number of...

Syllables

Syllables   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,680 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(3) If segment x has greater sonority than y , then a parse in which x is a nucleus is, all other things being equal, preferred to a parse in which y is a nucleus. An instantiation of (3) involves a Berber string such as \sawl-x\, realized as [sa.wl′x] ‘I spoke’. An alternative parse [saw.lx′] is not excluded in principle, since Berber does allow syllabic fricatives in other contexts (e.g. tx′zn′t ‘store’). To express the preference for [sa.wl′x] over [saw.lx′], one must invoke (3), which favors a parse with [l′] over [x′]. Although [x′] is tolerated in...

Wolof

Wolof   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
2

...linked to the grammaticalization of focus in the verb. Wolof is usually described as having 35 phonemes (20 consonants, 8 short and 7 long vowels), without counting geminate and prenasalized consonants (see Tables 1 and 2). Table 1. Vowel Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Table 2. Consonant Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Labial Dental (Alveolar) Palatal Velar Uvular Stops p t e k q b d j g Nasals m n ñ η Fricatives f s x Trills r Laterals l Semivowels y w In final position, stops have special realizations (implosive for...

Tone

Tone   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,843 words
Illustration(s):
6

...tone is lowered all the way to the preceding low. Liberman and Pierrehumbert 1984 have shown that, at least in English, register-lowering (which they refer to as “downstep”) lowers the high pitch register by a constant proportion each time; that is, (3) X i+1 − r = s ·( X i − r ) Here X i and X i+1 = the height of the high pitch register, in Hertz, before and after register-lowering; s = the register-lowering constant; and r = the reference line from which the high pitch register is measured. The nature of the phonological environment for...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who return do not like Quechua speakers to use Spanish loans. Quechua, Ayacucho: also called Runasimi, Chanka. 900,000 speakers in Peru, the southwestern Ayacucho region and Lima. Dialects are Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 31%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 8%, 5 1%. Perhaps 300,000 are monolingual, 600,00 can speak varying degrees of Spanish. Some families are switching to Spanish. Spoken in local administration, oral and written Ayacucho Quechua used in some schools and more than one university. Parents transmit Ayacucho...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Finite-state languages are formed by the operations of concatenation, union, and “Kleene closure.” The last operation is illustrated by the following example. Let x and y be strings over some vocabulary. Then ( x, y )* (“Kleene star of x and y ”) is the set of all strings of repetitions of x and y , including the null string; i.e., {∅, x, y, xx (= x 2 ), xy, yx, y 2 , x 3 ,…}. The class of finite-state languages over a fixed vocabulary is closed under union, intersection, complementation with the universal language, and concatenation. They...

Berber Languages

Berber Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,707 words
Illustration(s):
2

...long counterpart ṭṭ ) belong to the Proto-Berber consonant inventory. The other pharyngealized consonants are either borrowed from Arabic or result from secondary developments. Table 1. Phoneme Inventory of Tashelhiyt Short Consonants (after Galand 1988) f t s š k x ḥ b d z ž g Ɣ ʕ (ṭ) ṣ k w x w ḍ z̳ g w Ɣ w m n (w) (y) (h) r (ṛ) l Table 2. Phoneme Inventory of Tashelhiyt Long Consonants (after Galand 1988) Vowel systems (Table 3) differ greatly among the languages. The northern languages have three plain vowels plus a short central vowel, ə , whose...

Semantics

Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
18,984 words
Illustration(s):
6

...itself), asymmetry (if X is taller than Y, necessarily Y is not taller than X), and transitivity (if X is taller than Y, and Y is taller than Z, then necessarily X is taller than Z). A word like Eng. equals , which has all three “positive” properties—reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity—is said to express an identity relation. Many words actually have none of these properties, for example, hate . It is not necessarily the case that one hates or does not hate oneself. Nor, if X hates Y, does it necessarily follow that Y hates X. Finally, hate is...

German

German   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,836 words
Illustration(s):
2

...fricatives /ç/ and /x/ occur essentially in complementary distribution: velar /x/ is found only after central and back vowels, and never in initial position; palatal /ç/ occurs after front vowels, after the consonants /n 1 r/, and in syllable-initial position. Table 1. German Consonant Phonemes . Common orthographic equivalents are given in angle brackets. Labial Apical Alveo-palatal Palatal Velar Glottal Stops k  Voiceless p t g  Voiced b d Affricates  Voiceless pf ts 〈 z, tz 〉 Fricatives  Voiceless f 〈 f, v 〉 s 〈 s ,ß〉 š 〈 sch 〉 ç 〈 ch 〉 x 〈 ch 〉 h  Voiced v...

Greek

Greek   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,044 words
Illustration(s):
1

... δ E/ ε [ε]/e [ ε ]/e Z/ ζ [zd]/z [z]/z H/ η [ε:]/e:, ē [i]/i Θ/ θ [t h ]/th [ θ ]/th, θ I/ ι [i]/i [i]/i K/ κ [k]/k, c [k]/k Λ/ λ [l]/l [l]/l M/ μ [m]/m [m]/m N/ ν [n]/n [n]/n Ξ/ ξ [ks]/x [ks]/ks, x (as in fox ) O/ o [o]/o [o]/o Π/ π [p]/p [p]/p P/ ρ [r]/r [r]/r Σ/ σ (ς__#) [s]/s [s]/s T/ τ [t]/t [t]/t Y/ υ [y]/y, u [i]/i Φ/ ø [p h ]/ph [f]/f X/ χ [k h ]/ch, kh [x]/h, x Ψ/ ψ [ps]/ps [ps]/ps Ω/ ω [ɔ:]/o:, ō [o]/o Table 2. Greek Diphthongs, Consonantal Digraphs, and Diacritics (—means symbol not used in the period.) 4. A panchronic view of structure To...

Stratificational Grammar

Stratificational Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,113 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1973, pp. 12–33. Lamb, Sydney M. 1980. A new look at phonotactics. In Copeland and Davis 1980, pp. 1–18. Lamb, Sydney M. 1985. Descriptive process . LACUS Forum 11.5–20. Lamb, Sydney M. 1987. Linguistics, semiotics, and the human information system. In Developments in linguistics and semiotics (Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 1986), edited by Simon P. X. Battestini , pp. 51–62. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Lamb, Sydney M. 1999. Pathways of the brain: The neurocognitive basis of language . Amsterdam and...

Historical Linguistics

Historical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,403 words
Illustration(s):
9

... 1986 . Ross 1950 presents another method: an N×m table is constructed, in which a cross is marked in the appropriate cell if that language exhibits that feature, as in Table 2. Table 2. Alternative Treatment of Genetic Proximity Feature L 1 L 2 L 3 … L m 1 X X X 2 X X 3 X X : N X X Let n i = number of rows with a cross in column i (= number of features exhibited by L i ), n j = number of rows with a cross in column j (= number of features exhibited by L j ), and r = number of rows with a cross in both columns i and j (= number of...

Russian

Russian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,216 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(non-palatalized) vs. “soft” (palatalized) pairs, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Russian Consonant Phonemes Labial Apical Palatal Velar Stops  Voiceless   Hard p t k   Soft p' t' k'  Voiced   Hard b d g   Soft b' d' g' Affricates c č Fricatives  Voiceless   Hard f s š x   Soft f' s' šč x'  Voiced   Hard v z ž   Soft v' z' Nasals  Hard m n  Soft m' n' Vibrants  Hard r  Soft r' Laterals  Hard l  Soft l' Semivowel j Hard consonants are indicated in writing by a following word-boundary, or by following written vowels of the non-jotated series a a э ы o y. Soft...

Persian

Persian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,493 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of contemporary standard Persian includes tense/long i, ā [ɑ], u , and lax/short e, a [æ], o . The consonants are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Persian Consonants Labial Apical Palatal Velar Glottal Occlusives  Voiceless p t č k '  Voiced b d j g Fricatives  Voiceless f s š x h  Voiced v z ž q Nasals m n Vibrant r Lateral l Semivowel y There is considerable conditioned variation in both consonants and vowels, the most distinctive being that of q . Intervocalically, q is a voiced fricative; but in initial and final position, it is partially or fully...

Uralic Languages

Uralic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,271 words
Illustration(s):
3

...an important role. The Proto-Uralic segmental paradigm probably comprised some seventeen consonants and eight vowels; see Table 1. Table 1. Reconstructed Phonemes of Proto-Uralic Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Stops p t k Affricate c Sibilants s S Weak Fricatives (?) d j x Nasals m n N ŋ Lateral l Vibrant r Glides w y Unmarked Front Marked Front Marked Back Unmarked Back High i ü ï u Middle e o Low ä a Morphologically, Proto-Uralic can be reconstructed as an agglutinative language; suffixes marked two numbers (dual, plural), two grammatical cases...

Mayan Languages

Mayan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...but comprehension of speakers is adequate. Lacandón: 1,000 speakers in Mexico. Ethnic population: 1,000 as of 2000 . Spoken in southeastern Chiapas, Najá, Lacanjá San Quintín, Metzaboc, Betel. Dialects are Lacanjá, Najá. Bilingual level estimates for Tzeltal are 0 49%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 10%, 4 1%, 5 0%. Chol, Spanish also used. All ages. Mam, Central: also called Comitancillo Mam, Western Mam, Mam Occidental, Mam Marquense, San Marcos Comitancillas Mam. 100,000 speakers in Guatemala. All ages. Mam, Northern: also called Huehuetenango Mam. 180,000 speakers...

Athabaskan Languages

Athabaskan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,367 words
Illustration(s):
8

...between these verbs (with meanings such as ‘be in position’ and ‘handle object’) and the class of subject nouns (if intransitive) or object nouns (if transitive). The apparent co-occurrence restrictions are illustrated by one of four sets in Navajo; set A, given in Table 5, ‘X is in a position of rest’. However, a careful examination of most innovative uses of the classificatory verbs reveals that the problem involved is not that of co-occurrence restrictions but that of semantics and pragmatics. TABLE 5. Navajo Classificatory Verb Stems, Set A...

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