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46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( Flos Sanctorum ) in Tamil followed in 1580 and 1586 respectively. All these books were prepared in accordance with instructions issued in 1575 by Alessandro Valignano , who was responsible for all Jesuit missions in Southeast and East Asia between 1573 and 1606 (Wicki, x. 269, 334). He would also play a crucial role in the beginnings of missionary printing in China and Japan. The first publication in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History , 11 (1980), 265–86 N. Harris , ‘ Sopravvivenze e scomparse delle testimonianze del Morgante di Luigi Pulci ’, Rinascimento , 45 (2005), 179–245 L. Hellinga , ‘The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print’, in A Potencie of Life , ed. N. Barker (1993) X. Hermand et al ., ‘Les Politiques éditoriales dans l’Europe des imprimeurs au XV e siècle: un projet de recherches, en cours’, Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique , 87 (2009), 75–82 R. Hirsch , Printing, Selling and Reading 1450–1550 , 2e (1974) ISTC K. Jensen , ‘Printing the...

Magellan, Ferdinand

Magellan, Ferdinand (c. 1480–1521)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
1,568 words
Illustration(s):
1

... on October 20 of that year. Faleiro followed. In Seville Magellan was aided by Diogo Barbosa , his wealthy Portuguese host and future father-in-law, along with Juan de Aranda , factor of the Casa de Contratación; Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, bishop of Burgos and vice president of the Council of the Indies; and others at the Spanish court. Though on March 22, 1518 , Magellan signed a contract with Charles I (the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ), his fleet of five ships did not leave Sanlúcar de Barrameda until September 20, 1519 . In the...

Space Program

Space Program   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
7,706 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Encouraged by the flight of the space tourist Dennis Tito aboard Soyuz TM-32 in 2001 , and the then still unclaimed X-Prize—a monetary award given to the first private entity to build and launch a reusable spacecraft into space twice within a two-week period—the Myasishchev Design Bureau (the organization responsible for the design of the Soviet shuttle Buran ), and the American corporation Space Adventures unveiled their entry for the X-Prize competition the following year: the C-21 “Cosmopolis.” “Cosmopolis” is aerially launched from a specially designed...

Codes of Law and Laws

Codes of Law and Laws   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
23,748 words
Illustration(s):
4

...In the case of the Spanish provinces, an extensive corpus of legislation largely based on Visigoth, Roman, and canon law was applied during colonial times and, in many instances, mixed with local regulations. The most relevant codes were the Siete Partidas promulgated by Alfonso X El Sabio in 1265 , the Ordenamiento de Alcalá of 1348 , Leyes del Toro of 1505 , Nueva Recopilación de las Leyes de Castilla of 1567 , Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias of 1680 , and Novísima Recopilación de las Leyes de España of 1805 . In the case of the Brazilian...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
17,377 words
Illustration(s):
4

...therefore, the most comprehensive account of Africa to emerge in the sixteenth century was written by a Moor drawing on his own experiences and Arab sources. Born in Granada, educated in Fez, and captured by Christian pirates in 1518 , Leo Africanus was freed by Pope Leo X , who encouraged him to write his Description of Africa . He had crossed the Sahara to reach the Niger and visit Songhai, Gao, the Hausa kingdoms, and Bornu and had gained a great knowledge of Arab geographical learning. Appearing in Italian in 1526 and translated into English in...

Malcolm X

Malcolm X (b. 19 May 1925)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,037 words
Illustration(s):
2

...during the early 1990s, young African American men began wearing X-caps, and even U.S. President Bill Clinton was sometimes seen jogging in one. In 1992 the filmmaker Spike Lee directed Malcolm X , starring the Oscar-winning actor Denzel Washington as Malcolm. On 20 January 1999 , the U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp. [ See also Malcolm X, Memory of ; Muhammad, Elijah ; Nation of Islam ; and Shabazz, Betty .] Bibliography Breitman, George . The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary . New York: Merit, 1967. This...

Doukas

Doukas   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
562 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (the Crimea). Again it is unknown whether Constantine X Doukas , who ascended the imperial throne in 1059 , and his son Michael VII Doukas were related to the elder Doukai as affirmed by Psellos and Nicholas Kallikles ; Nikephoros Bryennios even went so far as to assert that their ancestors served Constantine I the Great. A 12th-C. historian (Zon. 3:675f) wrote, on the other hand, that the old lineage died out after the unsuccessful revolt of Constantine Doukas in 913 , and Constantine X was a descendant only through the female line. The 11th-C....

Lee, Spike

Lee, Spike (b. 20 March 1957)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
995 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ambitious biopic Malcolm X , also starring Washington. Warner Brothers offered him $20 million to produce the film, a figure far below Lee's estimated budget. He turned to black celebrities, including Bill Cosby , Michael Jordan , and Oprah Winfrey , as backers. Their investment paid off: the film ultimately grossed $48 million. Although audiences were enthusiastic, Lee received criticism from Amiri Baraka and some other black intellectuals who were concerned about the potential distortion and commercialization of Malcolm X's memory. Indeed, the release...

Owls

Owls   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
681 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Research, 14. Santa Fe, N.M., 1957. Tozzer, Alfred M. , and G. M. Allen . Animal Figures in the Maya Codices . Peabody Museum Papers, vol. 4, no. 3. Cambridge, Mass., 1910. von Winning, Hasso . “ The Teotihuacan Owl-and-Weapon Symbol and Its Association with ‘Serpent Head X’ at Kaminaljuyu. ” American Antiquity 14 (1948), 120–123. von Winning, Hasso . Two Maya Monuments in Yucatan: The Palace of the Stuccoes at Acanceh and the Temple of the Owls at Chichen Itzá . Southwest Museum, Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Publication Fund, 12. Los Angeles,...

Papacy

Papacy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,069 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 53 (1985): 773–796. Daniel-Rops, Henry . The Church in an Age of Revolution, 1789–1870 . Translated by John Warington . London: J. M. Dent; New York: Dutton, 1965. Falconi, Carlo . The Popes in the Twentieth Century: From Pius X to John XXIII . Translated by Muriel Grindrod . Boston: Little, Brown, 1967. Murphy, Francis X. The Papacy Today . New York: Macmillan, 1981. Nichols, Peter . The Politics of the Vatican . London: Pall Mall, 1968. Shultenover, David . A View from Rome: On the Eve of the Modernist Crisis . New York: Fordham University Press,...

Denmark

Denmark   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
959 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and industry. The currency was devalued by 20 per cent, agricultural debts were restructured, and agricultural taxes were reduced. The recovery of the export‐orientated agricultural sector would then pay for social welfare reforms in the cities, and create jobs in industry. After the outbreak of World War II, Denmark affirmed its neutrality, and was the only Scandinavian country to conclude a non‐aggression treaty with Hitler in late 1939 . Still, it was invaded on 9 April 1940 . King Christian X remained in Copenhagen, while Danish resistance led...

Postal Services

Postal Services   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,775 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of threats of mail bombs (like the Unabomber bombings from the late 1970s to the 1990s) and bioterrorism (beginning with the 2001 anthrax attacks that killed five people and injured seventeen others), the U.S. Postal Service subjects mail to security tests that include scanning, X-raying, and irradiating parcels and letters. The rapidly advancing technologies of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are providing many alternatives to conventional postal services; for example, the Internet facilitates the almost instantaneous sending of...

Space Exploration.

Space Exploration.   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,591 words
Illustration(s):
1

...turn of the twentieth century when scientists started using balloons to carry instruments to 100,000 feet (30,480 meters) to study cosmic rays. After World War II sounding rockets arcing up to 400,000 feet (121,920 meters) gave scientists a fleeting glimpse of the ultraviolet and X-ray radiation from the Sun and stars. Although this effort harvested a wealth of scientific data, space exploration received an immeasurable boost from the International Geophysical Year ( IGY ) of July 1957 to December 1958 , a cooperative scientific endeavor to study...

Detroit Riots

Detroit Riots   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,820 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of former soldiers without access to jobs or housing, and with many veterans and civilians subjected to daily rampant racism and brutality, there arose a specter that African Americans would begin to heed the call for armed self-defense advocated by the Michigan native Malcolm X and the radical Black Panther Party, among other militant groups. Indeed, Detroit was a breeding ground for some of the most radical workers' and black nationalist groups in the country, including the Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement ( DRUM ) and the League of Revolutionary...

Lukusa, Luvungi Albert See Luvungi, Albert Lukusa. Lumumba, Patrice Emery

Lukusa, Luvungi Albert See Luvungi, Albert Lukusa. Lumumba, Patrice Emery (1925)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,726 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the charge that he incited riots in Kisangani caused by several Congolese at an MNC congress meeting. Lumumba was released from prison at the demand of the Congolese delegations already present in Brussels for a conference to discuss the political future of the Congo, from 20 January to 20 February 1960 . He arrived in Belgium on 26 January and made many speeches in favor of complete independence for the Congolese. The Belgian government granted Congo’s independence on 30 June 1960 . Having returned from Léopoldville at the end of February, Lumumba became a...

archaeology: Iberia

archaeology: Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,015 words
Illustration(s):
2

... S. A. Walton (2006), 189–211. S. Gutiérrez , Cerámica común paleoandalusí del sur de Alicante (siglos VII–X) (1988). H. Kirchner , La construcció de l’espai pages a Mayûrqa; les valls de Bunyola, Orient, Coanegra i Alaró (1997). ——  La ceràmica de Yâbisa: Catàleg i estudi dels fons del Museu Arqueològic d’Eivissa i Formentera (2002). —— and C. Navarro , ‘ Objetivos, métodos y práctica de la arqueología hidráulica ’, Archeologia Medievale , 20 (1993), 121–50. V. Martínez Enamorado , ‘ Sobre las “Ciudades Iglesias” de Ibn Hafsun: Estudio de la basilica...

Dönitz, Karl

Dönitz, Karl (1891–1980)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Deutsche Marinen im Wandel: Vom Symbol nationaler Einheit zum Instrument internationaler Sicherheit , edited by Werner Rahn , pp. 525–545. Munich: Oldenbourg, 2005. Ministry of Defence (Navy). U-Boat War in the Atlantic, 1939–1945 . London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1989x. Mulligan, Timothy P. Neither Sharks nor Wolves: The Men of Nazi Germany’s U-Boat Arm, 1939–1945 . Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1999. Padfield, Peter . Dönitz: The Last Führer; Portrait of a Nazi War Leader . London: Gollancz, 1984. Salewski, Michael . Die deutsche...

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