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46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( Flos Sanctorum ) in Tamil followed in 1580 and 1586 respectively. All these books were prepared in accordance with instructions issued in 1575 by Alessandro Valignano , who was responsible for all Jesuit missions in Southeast and East Asia between 1573 and 1606 (Wicki, x. 269, 334). He would also play a crucial role in the beginnings of missionary printing in China and Japan. The first publication in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History , 11 (1980), 265–86 N. Harris , ‘ Sopravvivenze e scomparse delle testimonianze del Morgante di Luigi Pulci ’, Rinascimento , 45 (2005), 179–245 L. Hellinga , ‘The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print’, in A Potencie of Life , ed. N. Barker (1993) X. Hermand et al ., ‘Les Politiques éditoriales dans l’Europe des imprimeurs au XV e siècle: un projet de recherches, en cours’, Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique , 87 (2009), 75–82 R. Hirsch , Printing, Selling and Reading 1450–1550 , 2e (1974) ISTC K. Jensen , ‘Printing the...

L-moments

L-moments   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
118 words
Illustration(s):
1

...-moments Measures of location , spread, and other properties of distributions that are computed from linear combinations of the ordered data values x (1) ≤ x (2) ≤⋯≤ x ( n ) (with mean , which is the first L -moment). Defining the quantities b 1 , b 2 ,…, b n− 1 by the next three L -moments are 2 b 1 − , 6 b 2 − 6 b 1 + , and 20 b 3 −30 b 2 +12 b 1 − . The second L -moment is related to the Gini statistic . An advantage of L -moments is that they can be calculated even when distributions have infinite...

Mohr’s stress circle

Mohr’s stress circle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Engineering and Technology
Length:
319 words
Illustration(s):
5

... x , y axes by normal stress es σ ‎ x and σ ‎ y , and shear stresses τ ‎ xy , the normal stress σ ‎ θ ‎ and shear stress τ ‎ θ ‎ on a plane inclined at angle θ ‎ to the x -axis are given by σ θ = 1 2 ( σ x + σ y ) + 1 2 ( σ x - σ y ) cos 2 θ - τ x y sin 2 θ and τ θ = 1 2 ( σ x - σ y ) sin 2 θ - τ x y cos 2 θ . Elimination of θ ‎ gives [ σ θ - 1 2 ( σ x + σ y ) ] 2 + τ θ 2 = 1 4 ( σ x - σ y ) 2 + τ x y 2 that, on σ ‎ , τ ‎ axes, is the equation of a circle having radius 1 4 ( σ x - σ y ) 2 + τ x y 2 centred on the σ ‎ -axis at ½ ( σ x + σ...

radiography

radiography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
864 words
Illustration(s):
1

...kind of attenuation is dominant simple scattering ∝ 1/ E ∝ Z 2 1–20keV photoelectric effect ∝ 1/ E 3 ∝ Z 3 1–30keV Compton scattering falls gradually with E independent 30keV–20MeV pair production rises slowly with E ∝ Z 2 above 20 MeV Air has a higher average Z than soft tissue, which consists of mostly carbon ( 6 C) and hydrogen ( 1 H). However, the low average density of air means that it does not attenuate X-rays strongly. Barium, on the other hand, has an atomic number of 56, and thus...

Anderson–Darling test

Anderson–Darling test   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
184 words
Illustration(s):
1

... sample size , and x ( j ) is the j th ordered observation ( x (1) ≤ x (2) ≤⋯≤ x ( n ) ). The statistic can also be used to test for normal distribution and exponential distribution with unknown parameters estimated by their sample equivalents. In some cases, as shown in the following table, an adjusted test statistic is required. test statistic upper tail probability 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.01 Specified distribution A 2 1.933 2.492 3.070 3.857 Normal, estimated mean ( n >20) A 2 0.894 1.087 1.285 1.551 Normal, estimated variance ( n >20) A 2 1.743 2.308...

X-rays

X-rays   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,613 words
Illustration(s):
2

...was appreciated of the dangers of X-rays and protection was unknown, but the hazards all too soon became apparent. Frequent exposure led to radiation burns, loss of fingers, and fatal skin cancers. A Martyr's Memorial was erected in Hamburg in 1936 by the German Röntgen Society, inscribed with the names of 169 X-ray and radium martyrs from 15 countries who by then had died; the highest tolls recorded were 14 British, 20 German, 39 American, and 40 French. Twenty-eight more British names were later added. It was not until the 1920s that any protective...

Malcolm X

Malcolm X (b. 19 May 1925)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,037 words
Illustration(s):
2

...during the early 1990s, young African American men began wearing X-caps, and even U.S. President Bill Clinton was sometimes seen jogging in one. In 1992 the filmmaker Spike Lee directed Malcolm X , starring the Oscar-winning actor Denzel Washington as Malcolm. On 20 January 1999 , the U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp. [ See also Malcolm X, Memory of ; Muhammad, Elijah ; Nation of Islam ; and Shabazz, Betty .] Bibliography Breitman, George . The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary . New York: Merit, 1967. This...

reliability

reliability   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
276 words
Illustration(s):
4

... and its square root is the reliability coefficient . The true scores are unknown, but the coefficient can be estimated by using repeat tests. Suppose n individuals are given k similar tests. Let x m be the total score obtained by individual m over the k tests and let and s 2 be the mean and variance, respectively, of x 1 , x 2 ,…, x n . If each test consists of a single question for which an answer is either correct or incorrect, then let p j represent the proportion of correct answers to question j . Alternatively, if a variety of...

Malcolm X

Malcolm X   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,505 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one closest to attaining true knowledge of God, the one to most effectively erase racism from society and promote peace, love, and justice. Malcolm X became dedicated to spreading the message that the American white person’s racism needed to be regarded as a human problem and that both races had the responsibility to correct it. During his speech in the Audubon Ballroom in New York on 20 December 1964 , Malcolm X spoke to his audience about Africa, Asia, and the Arab world. He also talked of oppression and exploitation. He further spoke of the nonalignment...

hypothesis test

hypothesis test   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
991 words
Illustration(s):
2

...suppose X has a normal distribution N( μ , 9) and it is desired to test H 0 : μ  = 20 against H 1 : μ >20, using a sample of size 25. An appropriate statistic is the sample mean , which has distribution N(20, 9/25) under H 0 , or its standardized value which has distribution N(0, 1). If the desired significance level is 5%, the critical region, from tables of critical values for the standard normal distribution ( see appendix iv ) is Z >1.645. In terms of , the critical region is >20 + 1.645 or, equivalently, >20.99. The...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Reinhard Achenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

...against Moses and Aaron X 17:2–11 [Heb. 17:17–26 ] The ordeal of the staffs: Aaron’s blossoming rod X 17:12–13 [Heb. 17:27–28 ]; 18 Instructions on the Aaronite priestly privileges, the reward for the Levites and the tithes X 19 Instructions on the ritual of the red heifer and on purification of the community from contamination by corpses X The Way through the Wilderness II 20:1aa The wandering to the wilderness of Zin X 20:1ab,b The death of Miriam at Kadesh X 20:2–13 The sin of Moses and Aaron at the waters of Meribah X 20:14–21 The Edomites refuse...

Cantigas de Santa María

Cantigas de Santa María   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...composed in the second half of the 13th century at the court of Alfonso X , King of Castile and León ( reg 1252–84 ). The Cantigas are preserved in four 13th-century manuscripts, three of which are illustrated. Two of the illustrated Cantigas manuscripts are thought to have once formed a de luxe edition of the songs commissioned by Alfonso x . The two volumes are now split between Madrid (Escorial, Real Bib. Monasterio S Lorenzo, MS. T.I.1) and Florence (Bib. N. Cent., MS. B.R.20). The first volume, the Códice rico at the Escorial, has over 200...

chi-squared test

chi-squared test   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
490 words
Illustration(s):
7

...frequency e jk is given by and the test statistic X 2 is given by If the null hypothesis of independence is correct, then the distribution of X 2 can be approximated by a chi-squared distribution with ( J −1)( K −1) degrees of freedom. In the special case where J = K =2 (a two-by-two table), the chi-squared approximation is improved by using the Yates-corrected chi-squared test ( see two-by-two table ). In 1946 Cramér suggested that a measure of association could be based on the value of X 2 . This is Cramér's V , given by where M is the...

Water-Quality Trends

Water-Quality Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,190 words
Illustration(s):
1

...X (XX) X(?) X(?) X Eutrophication X (X) XX (X)† X (X) NA Nitrate pollution XX (X) X (?) O (?) XXX (XX) Salinization X (XX) O (X?) O (?) O (X to XX) Metal contaminants XX (XX) X (?) X (X) XX (XX?) Toxic organic substances XXX (XX) X (?) X (X) XX (XX?) Acidification X (X) X (?) XX (X) O Microbial pathogens X (XXX) X (X?) X (X?) X (XX?) Hydrological changes XXX (XXX) NA X (X) X Water-related diseases O (XXX) O (XX) O (XXX) (XX) Biological invasion‡ X (XX) X (X) NA Relative recovery period§ Years to decades Years Years to centuries Decades to centuries Note : X =...

Scales

Scales   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...∂ x j − u ¯ j ∂ u i ′ ∂ x j − u j ′ ∂ u ¯ i ∂ x j − u j ′ ∂ u i ′ ∂ x j − δ i 3 g − 2 ϵ i j k Ω j u ¯ k − 2 ϵ i j k Ω j u k ′ − 1 ρ ¯ + ρ ′ ∂ p ¯ ∂ x i − 1 ρ ¯ + ρ ′ ∂ p ′ ∂ x i + ν ∂ 2 u ¯ i ∂ x j 2 + ν ∂ 2 u i ′ ∂ x j 2 (6) When we average this equation while applying Reynolds averaging rules and using the Boussinesq approximation and the continuity equation for motion perturbations, we are left with a prognostic equation for the resolved (mean) wind: ∂ u ¯ i ∂ t = − u ¯ j ∂ u ¯ i ∂ x j − δ i 3 g − 2 ϵ i j k Ω j u ¯ k − 1 ρ ¯ ∂ p ¯ ∂ x i + ν ∂ 2 u ¯ i ∂ x j...

Paradigm Function Morphology: Assumptions and Innovations

Paradigm Function Morphology: Assumptions and Innovations   Reference library

Gregory Stump

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
7,421 words
Illustration(s):
36

...form X sya implies a nominative singular form having X as its stem but fails to determine the full nominative singular form itself (which is X s for some choices of X and X m for others). Conversely, a word form w ₁ in the paradigm of a lexeme L may uniquely determine the suffix of some other word form w ₂ in L’s paradigm but fail to determine w ₂ itself; in Sanskrit, for example, a locative singular form X au implies a genitive singular form having -s as its suffix but fails to determine the full genitive singular form itself (which is X es for...

Atmospheric Chemistry

Atmospheric Chemistry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,117 words
Illustration(s):
6

...portion directly attributable to NO x is shaded dark gray. This increases linearly as NO x increases. The portions due to the halogen (Cl, Br, medium gray) and odd-hydrogen (light gray) cycles are shown by the two curves. These are strongly influenced by total NO x . At low NO x , more HO x and halogens are activated, so total ozone loss decreases as NO x decreases. At high NO x , HO x and halogens are largely sequestered, so total ozone loss increases as NO x decreases. The effect of changing NO x thus depends dramatically on actual...

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