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Bassoon

Bassoon   Reference library

William Waterhouse and James B. Kopp

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
17,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1764) E.L. Gerber : Historisch - biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler (Leipzig, 1790–2) H. C. Koch : Musikalisches Lexikon (Frankfurt am Main, 1802) C. Baermann : ‘Ueber die Natur und Eigenthümlichkeit des Fagotts’, AMZ , vol.22 (1820), 601–7 C. Almenräder : Abhandlung über die Verbesserung des Fagotts (Mainz, 1823) G. Weber : ‘Wesentliche Verbesserungen des Fagottes’, Caecilia [Mainz], vol.2 (1825), 123–40 [incl. illustration] G. Weber : ‘C. Almenräders weitere Fagott–Verbesserung’, Caecilia [Mainz], vol.9 (1828), 128 C. Almenräder...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
23,637 words
Illustration(s):
20

...by the required amount. On the tablā , five harmonic partials originate from nine normal modes of vibration, several of which have the same frequencies. The fundamental tone is from the (0,1) mode; the 2nd harmonic is from the (1,1) mode; the (2,1) and (0,2) modes provide the 3rd harmonic; the (3,1) and (1,2) modes supply the 4th harmonic; and the (4,1), (0,3), and (2,2) modes contribute to the 5th harmonic. In double-headed drums, such as the snare drum and the bass drum, there is considerable coupling between the two heads as they vibrate, especially at low...

Sound

Sound   Reference library

Charles Taylor

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
13,777 words
Illustration(s):
16

...attempt to provide a unit that, though based on physical measurement, bears some relationship to perceived sensation. If the ratio of two physically measured sound intensities is I 1 :I 2 , then I 1 has a level n decibels above I 2 if n = 10 log 10 (I 1 /I 2 ). Thus since log 10 2 is 0.3010, if the ratio I 1 :I 2 is 2:1, I1 is approximately 3 decibels louder than I 2 . Decibel levels can, of course, be added, so for example a sound that starts at a level of 10 dB above some fixed standard and is then amplified by a factor of two will finish up 13 dB...

Recording and playback devices

Recording and playback devices   Reference library

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, D.E.L. Shorter, John Borwick, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, and John Borwick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,541 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Audio (Indianapolis, 1985, 3/1995) J. Eargle : Handbook of Recording Engineering (New York, 1986, 3/1996) D.M. Huber and R.E. Runstei : Modern Recording Techniques (Burlington, 7/2010) Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume (I, 1); Jerome F. Weber (I, 2); Jerome F. Weber /R (I, 3–5); Jerome F. Weber (with John Borwick )/ Anne Beetem Acker (I, 6); D.E.L. Shorter / John Borwick /R (II, 1–5); John Borwick / Anne Beetem Acker (II, 6); John Borwick /R (II, 7–10) ...

Computer

Computer   Reference library

Peter Manning, Anne Beetem Acker, Peter Manning, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,238 words
Illustration(s):
1

...great advances in organological research and computer-assisted instrument design and manufacture. Computer program instructions and data are coded as binary digital patterns (sequences of 0 and 1), corresponding to the binary (‘off’ and ‘on’) states of the electronic circuits. The number of binary digits or ‘bits’ used for each pattern varies, but is always a power of 2, such as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bit. At the heart of a computer lies a central processing unit (CPU) capable of executing arithmetical instructions such as ‘add’, ‘subtract’, ‘multiply’, and...

Trumpet

Trumpet   Reference library

Margaret Sarkissian and Edward H. Tarr

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,279 words
Illustration(s):
4

...633–8 F.-J. Fétis : ‘Cors à pistons’, ReM , vol.2 (1828), 153–64 K. Bagans : ‘On the Trumpet, as at Present Employed in the Orchestra’, American Musical Journal , vol.1 (1834–5), 252–5 G. Weber : ‘Ueber Ventilhorn und Ventiltrompete mit drei Ventilen’, Caecilia [Mainz], vol.17 (1835), 73–105 H. Eichborn : Die Trompete in alter und neuer Zeit (Leipzig, 1881/ R ) H. Pietzsch : Die Trompete als Orchester-Instrument und ihre Behandlung in den verschiedenen Epochen der Musik (Heilbronn, 1901, 2/1906/ R , Ger. and Eng. texts) V.C. Mahillon : Instruments...

Timpani

Timpani   Reference library

James Blades and Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the hide is treated to preserve the skin during the process of unhairing, after which it is strengthened by immersion in a lime solution and stretched on a frame, the ‘spine’ orientated vertically. It is then scraped by hand or equalized by machinery to a thickness of from 0.125 to 0.175 mm. To mount a vellum head properly, it must first be soaked in cold water until pliable and then lapped completely around the flesh hoop. The lapped head is then placed on the bowl and the counter-hoop adjusted to draw the head slightly down over the rim, giving it a...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Harvey Turnbull/Paul Sparks/R (1, 2, 5, 6, 8(ii)), James Tyler/R (3, 4), Tony Bacon/R (7), Oleg V. Timofeyev (8(i)), Gerhard Kubik/R (8(iii)), Thomas F. Heck (Bibliography)

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,769 words
Illustration(s):
1

... T. Stone : ‘A New Tonal Universe for the Guitar: Interchangeable Fingerboards’, Guitar & Lute , vol.6 (1978), 19–21 M. Weber : ‘Gitarrenkorpus geometrisch abgeleitet: Instrumentengeschichte aus Spanien’, Instrumentenbau-Zeitschrift , vol.32 (1978), 774 only K. Achard : The History and Development of the American Guitar (London, 1979) D. Denning : ‘The Vihuela: Royal Guitar of 16th–Century Spain’, Soundboard , vol.6/2 (1979), 38–41 T. Evans and others: Guitares: chefs d’oeuvre des collections de France (Paris, 1980) T. Heck : ‘Mysteries in...

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