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Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2,782,500 speakers in the highland regions and lowland except around Apolo. Dialects are Sucre, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca. May be intelligible with Chilean Quechua and Northwest Jujuy Quechua in Argentina. In Argentina: 850,000 speakers in Buenos Aires, some working on docks. Some speakers also in Salta Province. Quechua, Southern Pastaza: also called Inga. 1,000 speakers in Peru, the northern jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga Rivers, and along the Urituyacu. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...documents (Web page files) with arbitrary text is a CFL. An HTML document (with arbitrary text content) has this sort of structure: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> Jane Doe's Home Page </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1> Jane Doe </H1> <H2> Home Page </H2> <P> <CENTER> <IMG src=“jane.jpg”> </CENTER> </P> </BODY> </HTML> The expression <HTML> must be followed by </HTML>, <HEAD> must be followed by </HEAD>, and so on, in the same pattern as matched parentheses. Thus, recognizing that a string belongs to a certain CFL is one of the tasks performed by a Web browser. The CFLs...

Parsing

Parsing   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,504 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and noun phrase parser for unrestricted text. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACL Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing , pp. 136–143. Austin, Tex. Collins, Michael . 1997. Three generative, lexicalised models for statistical parsing. In Proceedings of the 35th Meeting of the ACL , pp. 16–23. Madrid. Frazier, Lyn , and Janet Dean Fodor . 1978. The sausage machine: A new two stage parsing model . Cognition 6.291–325. Grosz, Barbara J. , Karen Sparck Jones , and Bonnie Lynn Webber , eds. 1986. Readings in natural language processing . Los Altos,...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...New York: Academic Press. Green, Bert F. , et al. 1961. BASEBALL: An automatic question answerer. Reprinted in Grosz et al. 1986, pp. 545–549. Grosz, Barbara J. , Karen Sparck Jones , and Bonnie L. Webber , eds. 1986. Readings in natural language processing . Los Altos, Calif.: Kaufmann. Harris, Larry R. 1984. Experience with INTELLECT . AI Magazine 5:2.3–50. Hendrix, Gary G. , et al. 1978. Developing a natural language interface to complex data. Reprinted in Grosz et al. 1986, pp. 563–584. Hutchins, William John . 1986. Machine translation: Past,...

Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

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