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Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of Interstate War, 1816–1965. Journal of Conflict Resolution 36 (2), 309–41. Braithwaite, A. (2006) The Geographic Spread of International Conflicts. Journal of Peace Research 43 (5), 507–22. Brueckner, J.K. (2003) Strategic Interaction Among Governments: An Overview of Empirical Studies. International Regional Science Review 26 (2), 175. Buhaug, H. , and Gleditsch, K.S. (2008) Contagion or Confusion? Why Conflicts Cluster in Space. International Studies Quarterly 52 (2), 215–33. Busch, M.L. , and Reinhardt, E. (2006) Three’s a Crowd: Third...

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Jeffrey W. Taliaferro

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,750 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 101–18. Mearsheimer, J.J. (2001) The Tragedy of Great Power Politics . New York: Norton. Mearsheimer, J.J. (2009) Reckless States and Realism. International Relations 23 (2), 241–56. Mercer, J. (2005a) Prospect Theory and Political Science. Annual Review of Political Science 8, 1–21. Mercer, J. (2005b) Rationality and Psychology in International Politics. International Organization 59, 77–106. Midlarsky, M.I. (2005) The Demographics of Genocide: Refugees and Territorial Loss in the Mass Murder...

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics   Reference library

Lars Rensmann and Jennifer Miller

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1.9 6.6 7.8–9.9 11.6 12.0 LPF (Netherlands) – – – 11.35 – ** RMZ (Czech Republic) – 6.0 8.0 –3.9 1.0 0.15 Ataka (Bulgaria) – – – 8.9 – VMRO – BND (Bulgaria) – 6.5 9.4 5.7 *** – FN (France) 9.7 12.6 15.0 11.3 4.3 BNP (Great Britain) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.20.7 No election MIÉP (Hungary) – 1.58 5.5 4.4 2.2 LPR (Poland) – – – 7.9– 8.0 1.3 Samoobrona (Poland) 2.8 0.1 10.2– 11.3 2.5 PUNR (Romania) – 7.9 4.4...

The Spatial Analysis of War

The Spatial Analysis of War   Reference library

Clionadh Raleigh, Frank D.W. Witmer, and John O’Loughlin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,825 words
Illustration(s):
2

...science, IR and related fields can assist in understanding these new realities. Clionadh Raleigh , Frank D.W. Witmer , and John O’Loughlin Trinity College Dublin, University of Colorado, Boulder, and University of Colorado, Boulder References Afoaku, O. (2002) Congo’s Rebels: Their Origins, Motivations, and Strategies. In J.F. Clark (ed.) The African States in the Congo War . New York: Palgrave, pp. 109–29. Africa Confidential (1998) Uganda and Rwanda in Congo, p. 39 (July 2). Africa Confidential (1999) Rebel Splits in Congo, pp. 40–2...

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions   Reference library

Stephen G. Walker and Mark Schafer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,684 words
Illustration(s):
2

...control becomes asymmetrical without any change in the valences for the Self (I-1, I-2) and Other (P-1,P-2) indices, then the stronger (>) party will have a propensity to engage in Bully (EDE) tactics and expect the weaker party to engage in Bluff (EED) tactics. Figure 2 Verbs in context attribution indices for operational code beliefs Notes : *All indices vary between 0 and 1.0 except for P-1, P-2, I-1, and I-2, which vary between -1.0 and +1.0. P-2 and I-2 are divided by 3 to standardize the range (Walker et al. 1998; 2003). **“The Index of Qualitative...

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War   Reference library

Brandon C. Prins

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Studies Quarterly 13 (2), 190–222. Ghosn, F. , Palmer, G. , and Bremer, S.A. (2004) The MID3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, Coding Rules, and Description. Conflict Management and Peace Science 21 (2), 133–54. Gleditsch, N.P. (1992) Democracy and Peace. Journal of Peace Research 29 (2), 369–76. Gleditsch, N.P. (1995) Geography, Democracy, and Peace. International Interactions 20, 297–323. Gleditsch, N.P. , and Hegre, H. (1997) Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (2), 283–310. Gleditsch, N.P...

Women National Leaders

Women National Leaders   Reference library

Francine D’Amico

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,448 words
Illustration(s):
1

...countries 41.4% – – Americas 21.5% 20.4% 21.3% Europe – OSCE member countries including Nordic countries 21.2% 19.4% 20.9% Europe – OSCE member countries excluding Nordic countries 19.3% 19.4% 19.3% Asia 18.4% 16.5% 18.2% Sub-Saharan Africa 18.2% 21.0% 18.5% Pacific 13.0% 32.6% 15.2% Arab States 9.7% 7.0% 9.1% Regions are classified by descending order of the percentage of women in the lower or single House Source : Inter-Parliamentary Union...

Highly Skilled Migration

Highly Skilled Migration   Reference library

Brad K. Blitz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,429 words
Illustration(s):
1

...economies, as illustrated in Table 2 . Table 2 Foreign born labor present in OECD states for 10 years or less % low education % intermediate education % high education Austria 2.5 51.4 23.1 Belgium 32.2 24.9 42.9 Czech Republic 11.6 62.8 25.6 Denmark 27.3 33.5 39.2 Finland 30.5 51.0 18.5 France 40.7 25.6 33.7 Germany 32.7 41.0 26.3 Greece 48.3 39.3 12.4 Hungary 8.2 69.7 22.0 Ireland 14.6 37.7 47.7 Italy...

Urban Defenses

Urban Defenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,988 words
Illustration(s):
1

...perimeter. Illustrative examples of particularly well preserved medieval circuits include Ávila (perimeter of 1.6 miles [2.5 kilometers], with eighty-two towers), Visby (2.2 miles [3.5 kilometers], with twenty-seven towers), Lugo (1.3 miles [2.1 kilometers], with forty-six towers), Carcassonne (one mile [1.65 kilometers], with forty-two towers), Aigues Mortes (one mile [1.6 kilometers], with twenty towers), and Conwy (1.3 kilometers [0.8 miles], with twenty-one towers). Gates were the most prestigious and expensive elements in the circuit and were the focus...

Terrorism and Foreign Policy

Terrorism and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Amanda Skuldt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., accessed July 15, 2009. Inter-University consortium for Political and Social Research ( ICPSR ). At http://search.icpsr.umich.edu/ICPSR/query.html?nh=25&rf=0&ws=0&ty0=w&tx0=Terrorism&fl0=&col=website&col=abstract&col=series&op0=%2B&tx1=ICPSR&op1=%2B&fl1=archive%3A&ty1=w&tx2=restricted&op2=-&fl2=availability%3A&ty2=w , accessed July 23, 2009. Access to over 400 data sets on terrorism. 2. Think Tanks and Centers For a complete listing, see the FPRI Think Tank Directory. At http://thinktanks.fpri.org/search/node/terrorism , accessed July 15, 2009....

Issues in Data Collection

Issues in Data Collection   Reference library

Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and Kyle Clark Beardsley

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,367 words
Illustration(s):
5

... (1996) Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1816–1992: Rationale, Coding Rules, and Empirical Applications. Conflict Management and Peace Science 15 (2), 163–213. Kadera, K.M. , Crescenzi, M.J.C. , and Shannon, M.L. (2003) Democratic Survival, Peace, and War in the International System. American Journal of Political Science 47 (2), 234–47. Kaldor, M. (2006) New Wars and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era , 2nd edn. Cambridge: Polity. Kalyvas, S.N. (2001) “New” and “Old” Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction? World Politics 54 (1), 99–118. Kaplan...

Political Demography

Political Demography   Reference library

Tadeusz Kugler and Jacek Kugler

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,465 words
Illustration(s):
13

...do in Table 2 , we can place the central problems each populace faces into perspective. Table 2 Projected proportions of population below age 15 and aged 65 and older, selected countries and regions Country/Region Age: 0–14 Age: 65 plus 1950 2010 2025 2050 1950 2010 2025 2050 Japan 35.4 13.4 12.6 13.4 4.9 22.7 29.3 35.6 Western Europe 23.3 15.8 15.5 16 10.2 18.3 23.1 27.8 United States 27 20.1 19.4 18.8 8.3 13.1 18.2 21.2 China 34.2 19.5 15.7 13.5 4.5 8.2 14 25.6 India 37.5 30.6 25.4 19 3.1 4.9 7.3 13.5 Africa 41.6 40.3 37.1 30.6 3.3 3.5 4.2 6.6 Source ,...

Measuring Global Poverty

Measuring Global Poverty   Reference library

Shatakshee Dhongde

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,559 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Living Standards Measurement Study. At http:/go.worldbank.org/IPLXWMCNJ0 , accessed July 3, 2009. The Living Standards Measurement Study ( LSMS ) was launched by the World Bank to improve the quality of household data collected in developing countries. The website provides tools to help researchers design new surveys. It also contains household data surveys, some of which is panel data, on more than 30 countries. PovcalNet. At http:/go.worldbank.org/NT2A1XUWP0 , accessed July 3, 2009. PovcalNet is an interactive computational tool useful to...

Migration and Development

Migration and Development   Reference library

Philip Martin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,834 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Grouped By per Capita GDP ($) Ratio High-Low Ratio High-Middle Low Middle High 1975 85 4.1 2.1% 1 150 750 6200 41 8 1985 105 4.8 2.2% 2 270 1290 11,810 44 9 1990 154 5.3 2.9% 10 350 2220 19,590 56 9 1995 164 5.7 2.9% 2 430 2390 24,930 58 10 2000 175 6.1 2.9% 2 420 1970 27,510 66 14 2005 191 6.4 3.0% 3 580 2640 35,131 61 13 Note : The 1990 migrant stock was raised from 120 million to 154 million,...

Population Movements and Security

Population Movements and Security   Reference library

Jack A. Goldstone

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,696 words
Illustration(s):
1

...generations of young people approaching their peak earning years and saving for retirement will cease as well. When European populations were growing at 1 or 2 percent per year, even modest increases in real income per capita, of 2 percent per year, provided overall growth levels of 3 to 4 percent per year or better. With European populations instead shrinking by 0.3 to 0.5 percent per year, the same 2 percent increase in real income per capita will yield only 1.7 to 1.5 percent in overall growth. In other words, even if Europe’s income per capita growth...

artillery

artillery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,418 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The word artillery (probably from Old Fr.: atillier , to load or charge) can refer to a type of weapon; to an arm of service, alongside infantry, cavalry and engineers; or to the art and science of utilizing these weapons. The artillery arm has produced many great generals, most notably Napoleon . As a weapon, artillery is the most lethal form of land-based armament. It now includes guns, howitzers , mortars , and rockets , primarily designed for indirect fire , and also anti-aircraft guns, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface missiles. In the ...

International Communication Regimes

International Communication Regimes   Reference library

J.P. Singh

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,538 words
Illustration(s):
1

...increasingly more complex. As with regime change, users and carriers demanded smooth information flows for technologies including the radio, television, satellites, computers, data networks, fiber optics, cellular phones, Third Generation (3–G) Wireless, and, more recently, Web 2.0 and cloud computing applications. Arbitrating among powerful economic interests behind standard-setting was often hard and it has always been a somewhat political process. The processes of frequency allocation and determining slots in the GSO can be viewed as stand-setting...

Transnational Corporations and the Global Environment

Transnational Corporations and the Global Environment   Reference library

Matthias Finger and David Svarin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,222 words
Illustration(s):
1

...M.S. (2004) Trade, Growth, and the Environment. Journal of Economic Literature 42(1), 7–71. De Grauwe, P. , and Camerman, F. (2003) Are Multinationals Really Bigger Than Nations? World Economics 4(2), 23–37. Dowell, G. , Hart, S. , and Yeung, B. (2000) Do Corporate Global Environmental Standards Creat or Destroy Market Value? Management Science 46(8), 1059–74. Dunning, J.H. (1971) The Multinational Enterprise: the Background. In J.H. Dunning (ed.) The Multinational Enterprise . London: George Allen and Unwin, pp. 15–48. Dunning, J.H. (1995)...

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption   Reference library

Frank G. Madsen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,475 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the 2002 National Money Laundering Strategy ( US Department of the Treasury 2002 ) of money laundering in the USA at $300 billion in the year 2001 , the total funds seized and forfeited under money laundering provisions (respectively $386 and $241 million) represent 0.2 percent of the total laundered and 9 percent of the total costs of anti-money laundering measures. A further indication of the lack of effectiveness of the “follow the money” methodology is provided by the UK Assets Recovery Agency, ARA. The agency was set up in 2003 (with much media...

USA

USA   Reference library

David M. Kennedy, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, Richard Chapman, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, I. C. B. Dear, Shelby Stanton, David M. Kennedy, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Clayton R. Koppes

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
22,261 words
Illustration(s):
8

...0.4 46,182 0.8 66,610 0.9 61,458 0.7 Military Police 147,840 2.7 222,639 2.9 203,823 2.5 Transportation 51,041 0.9 167,612 2.2 260,260 3.2 total services 435,769 26.3 1,857,042 34.4 2,735,076 36.1 3,095,020 37.9 Air Corps 270,535 16.3 1,270,677 23.5 1,810,900 23.9 1,831,091 22.4 All Other (includes Women's Army Corps, Warrant and Flight Officers, and No Branch Assigned) 83,391 5.0 333,252 6.2 485,451 6.4 477,758 5.9 grand total 1,657,157 100.0 5,398,888 100.0 7,582,434 100.0 8,157,386 100.0 a Armoured, Tank Destroyer, and Anti-aircraft were not reported as...

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