You are looking at 1-20 of 69 entries  for:

  • All: Science 2.0 x
  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...strong variation on both sides. Table 2. Total National Multiparty Elections Held After Independence (1960–2017) Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account...

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Index (Range: 0 to 1) Burundi 8.20 483 0.530 Malawi 7.93 777 0.334 Mali 7.80 1,047 0.558 Burkina Faso 7.23 1,304 0.535 Tanzania 7.23 1,380 0.332 Mauritius 6.23 13,487 – Namibia 6.13 6,520 0.187 Mozambique 6.10 882 0.512 Kenya 5.97 1,522 0.229 Zimbabwe 5.73 – 0.172 Uganda 5.70 1,165 0.367 Algeria 5.60 7,339 – Zambia 5.40 1,475 0.328 Sierra Leone 5.37 1,171 0.439 South Africa 5.30 9,860 0.057 Cape Verde 5.23 3,818 – Ghana 5.17 1,764 0.144 Benin 4.80 1,364 0.412 Lesotho 4.50 1,692 0.156 Liberia 4.50 564 0.485 Togo 4.50 906 0.284 Nigeria 4.00 2,294 0.310 Botswana...

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,906 words
Illustration(s):
6

...electoral violence. Country List Armed Conflict (PRIO Types 2, 3, 4) Civil War (PRIO Type 3) Angola 1 1 Benin 0 0 Botswana 0 0 Burkina Faso 1 1 Burundi 1 1 Cameroon 1 1 Cape Verde 0 0 Central African Republic 1 1 Chad 1 1 Comoros 1 1 Djibouti 1 1 DRC 1 1 Equatorial Guinea 0 0 Eritrea 1 1 Ethiopia 1 1 Gabon 0 0 Gambia 0 0 Ghana 0 0 Guinea 1 1 Guinea Bissau 1 0 Ivory Coast 1 1 Kenya 0 0 Lesotho 1 0 Liberia 1 1 Madagascar 0 0 Malawi 0 0 Mali 1 1 Mauritania 1 1 Mauritius 0 0 Mozambique 1 1 Namibia 0 0 Niger 1 1 Nigeria 1 1 Republic of Congo 1 1 Rwanda 1 1...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,846 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and the Web of Science website listed 725 references to the introduction of the 1992 IO publication. Figures 1 and 2 show the growth over time of references to epistemic communities in ISI Web of Knowledge tracked journals. By country, citations were overwhelmingly in English-language journals (95 percent), with 2 percent in German, 1 percent in French, 1 percent in Norwegian, and between 0.4 percent and 0.3 percent in Spanish and Portuguese (see Figure 3 ). Disciplinary interest has been quite varied, with political science accounting for 27...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in Kenya . Political Behavior , 1–24. Howard, M. M. , & Roessle, P. G. (2006). Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes . American Journal of Political Science , 50 (2), 365–381. Hyden, G. , & Leys, C. (1972). Elections and politics in single-party systems: The case of Kenya and Tanzania . British Journal of Political Science , 2 (4), 389–420. Kasfir, N. (1976). The shrinking political arena: Participation and ethnicity in African politics, with a case study of Uganda . Berkeley: University of California Press....

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable   Reference library

Susan Dodsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...institutes in six African countries . Higher Education Policy , 30 (2), 203–223. Roper, L. (2002). Achieving successful academic-practitioner research collaborations . Development in Practice , 12 (3–4), 338–345. Science Foundation Ireland . (n.d.). Research impact . Sklar, R. L. (1993). The African frontier for political science. In R. H. Bates , V. Y. Mudimbe , & J. O’Barr (Eds.), Africa and the disciplines: The contributions of research in Africa to the social sciences and humanities (pp. 83–110). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press....

Welfare Politics in Africa

Welfare Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jeremy Seekings

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,567 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Dabalen, & Gaddis, 2016 ; UN, 2015 ). This was a period of strong global economic growth in Africa. Africa’s poverty rate remained stubbornly high because the growth elasticity of poverty is small. Every 1% of economic growth reduces poverty by only 0.7% in Africa, compared to a reduction of 2% elsewhere in the world ( Bicaba et al., 2015 , p. 10). In Africa, many more people have been left behind by economic growth. Development has failed to be broadly inclusive. Social assistance programs cannot eliminate poverty, but they can and do reduce...

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism   Reference library

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Coulibaly, M. , & Bratton, M. (2013). Crisis in Mali: Ambivalent popular attitudes on the way forward. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development , 2 (2). Croke, K. , Grossman, G. , Larreguy, H. A. , & Marshall, J. (2016). Deliberate disengagement: How education can decrease political participation in electoral authoritarian regimes. American Political Science Review , 110 (3), 579–600. Daloz, J. P. (1999). Le(non-) renouvellement des élites en Afrique subsaharienne . Bordeaux, France: CEAN. Dendere, C. (2015). The impact of...

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa   Reference library

Wilson Prichard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,764 words
Illustration(s):
3

...but average only about 2% of GDP in African countries outside of South Africa. Those that are collected come almost entirely from mandatory deductions from formal-sector wages, with limited taxation of the most important incomes of the wealthy: professional incomes and incomes from the ownership of capital assets. Property taxes tell a similar story: despite rapid urbanization, surging property values, and evidence that African elites are heavily invested in local real estate, property taxes are estimated to provide less than 0.4% of GDP in revenues to...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on such democracy promotion instruments has increased significantly since the early 1990s, but the variety of instruments and budget headings make overall estimates and comparisons of donors very difficult. Burnell ( 2011 ) cites World Bank figures indicating an increase from 0.5% of overall development assistance in 1991 to 5% in 2000 (p. 57). The United States increased its spending on democracy assistance from $ 128 million in 1990 to $ 902 million in 2005 ( Azpuru, Finkel, Perez-Linan, & Seligson, 2008 , p. 152). Cheeseman ( 2015 ) reported...

Democratic Norms and Religion

Democratic Norms and Religion   Reference library

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,391 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0.001) Specific indirect effects via: Confidence in institutions 0.001 (0.001) * –0.002 (0.001) ** –0.002 (0.001) ** 0.000 (0.000) –0.003 (0.001) ** Interest in politics 0.002 (0.002) 0.002 (0.001) * 0.002 (0.001) * 0.001 (0.000) 0.002 (0.001) * Direct effect of religious social behavior 0.014 (0.007) * –0.005 (0.003) –0.002 (0.003) 0.009 (0.003) ** –0.016 (0.005) ** Model fit indices: χ ‎ 2 272.200 227.536 227.46 222.962 209.154 TLI 0.946 0.988 0.967 0.972 0.979 CFI 0.982 0.965 0.989 0.991 0.936 RMSEA 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.031 AIC 9,869.615 –27,670.571...

Social Network Influence on Political Behavior in Religious Contexts

Social Network Influence on Political Behavior in Religious Contexts   Reference library

Christina Ladam, Ian Shapiro, and Anand Sokhey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,623 words
Illustration(s):
2

...you, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5?” 11 Figure 1 shows network averages of shared religious affiliation by the familiar tradition categories. For all respondents, the average shared portion of core networks sharing religious affiliation is 0.54 (SE = 0.01; the 0–5 scale was recoded to run 0–1), meaning that just over half of the five individuals a person thought about with this prompt shared their faith. Black Protestant respondents reported the highest level of shared religious affiliation in their networks (mean = 0.69, SE = 0.02), followed by Mormons (mean = 0.64,...

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...θ ‎ 1 , respectively, to 0.8 and set all covariates to 0 for simplicity. As the figure shows, a surprise change in the dependent variable returns to equilibrium at distinct rates for parsimonious AR and MA processes. The characteristic signature of an autoregressive process is a shock followed by the relatively smooth decay of that shock back to equilibrium. AR(1) models with 1 > ϕ ‎ 1 > 0 show geometric decay, while a stationary AR(2) model follows a slightly bumpy path back to equilibrium (for more examples, see Box and Jenkins 1984 ). Moving average...

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Jeffrey W. Taliaferro

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,750 words
Illustration(s):
2

...2002 Nobel Prize lecture. At http:/nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2002/kahneman-lecture.html , accessed June 2, 2009. Kahneman’s lecture, “Maps of Bounded Rationality,” discusses work with Tversky on judgmental heuristics, risky choice, and framing effects. Available in video and pdf format. Conversation with Daniel Kahneman . At http:/globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people7/Kahneman/kahneman-con0.html , accessed June 2, 2009. Harry Kriesler , “Intuition and Rationality: An Interview with Daniel Kahneman ,” Feb. 7, 2007 , an hour-long...

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics   Reference library

Lars Rensmann and Jennifer Miller

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1.9 6.6 7.8–9.9 11.6 12.0 LPF (Netherlands) – – – 11.35 – ** RMZ (Czech Republic) – 6.0 8.0 –3.9 1.0 0.15 Ataka (Bulgaria) – – – 8.9 – VMRO – BND (Bulgaria) – 6.5 9.4 5.7 *** – FN (France) 9.7 12.6 15.0 11.3 4.3 BNP (Great Britain) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.20.7 No election MIÉP (Hungary) – 1.58 5.5 4.4 2.2 LPR (Poland) – – – 7.9– 8.0 1.3 Samoobrona (Poland) 2.8 0.1 10.2– 11.3 2.5 PUNR (Romania) – 7.9 4.4...

The Spatial Analysis of War

The Spatial Analysis of War   Reference library

Clionadh Raleigh, Frank D.W. Witmer, and John O’Loughlin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,825 words
Illustration(s):
2

...science, IR and related fields can assist in understanding these new realities. Clionadh Raleigh , Frank D.W. Witmer , and John O’Loughlin Trinity College Dublin, University of Colorado, Boulder, and University of Colorado, Boulder References Afoaku, O. (2002) Congo’s Rebels: Their Origins, Motivations, and Strategies. In J.F. Clark (ed.) The African States in the Congo War . New York: Palgrave, pp. 109–29. Africa Confidential (1998) Uganda and Rwanda in Congo, p. 39 (July 2). Africa Confidential (1999) Rebel Splits in Congo, pp. 40–2...

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics   Reference library

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a Jewish candidate running for vice president” (p. 284). 3 In list experiments, the difference in the number of items reported in the two groups is the key finding of the research; for instance, if respondents in the control condition report on average 2.0 items and respondents in the treatment report on average 2.4 items, researchers deduce that 40 percent of respondents in the treatment chose the experimental item. Researchers can further analyze the differences between treatment and control in varying subpopulations—for instance, testing if levels of...

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions   Reference library

Stephen G. Walker and Mark Schafer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,684 words
Illustration(s):
2

...control becomes asymmetrical without any change in the valences for the Self (I-1, I-2) and Other (P-1,P-2) indices, then the stronger (>) party will have a propensity to engage in Bully (EDE) tactics and expect the weaker party to engage in Bluff (EED) tactics. Figure 2 Verbs in context attribution indices for operational code beliefs Notes : *All indices vary between 0 and 1.0 except for P-1, P-2, I-1, and I-2, which vary between -1.0 and +1.0. P-2 and I-2 are divided by 3 to standardize the range (Walker et al. 1998; 2003). **“The Index of Qualitative...

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War   Reference library

Brandon C. Prins

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Studies Quarterly 13 (2), 190–222. Ghosn, F. , Palmer, G. , and Bremer, S.A. (2004) The MID3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, Coding Rules, and Description. Conflict Management and Peace Science 21 (2), 133–54. Gleditsch, N.P. (1992) Democracy and Peace. Journal of Peace Research 29 (2), 369–76. Gleditsch, N.P. (1995) Geography, Democracy, and Peace. International Interactions 20, 297–323. Gleditsch, N.P. , and Hegre, H. (1997) Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (2), 283–310. Gleditsch, N.P...

Women National Leaders

Women National Leaders   Reference library

Francine D’Amico

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,448 words
Illustration(s):
1

...countries 41.4% – – Americas 21.5% 20.4% 21.3% Europe – OSCE member countries including Nordic countries 21.2% 19.4% 20.9% Europe – OSCE member countries excluding Nordic countries 19.3% 19.4% 19.3% Asia 18.4% 16.5% 18.2% Sub-Saharan Africa 18.2% 21.0% 18.5% Pacific 13.0% 32.6% 15.2% Arab States 9.7% 7.0% 9.1% Regions are classified by descending order of the percentage of women in the lower or single House Source : Inter-Parliamentary Union...

View: