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Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...strong variation on both sides. Table 2. Total National Multiparty Elections Held After Independence (1960–2017) Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account...

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Index (Range: 0 to 1) Burundi 8.20 483 0.530 Malawi 7.93 777 0.334 Mali 7.80 1,047 0.558 Burkina Faso 7.23 1,304 0.535 Tanzania 7.23 1,380 0.332 Mauritius 6.23 13,487 – Namibia 6.13 6,520 0.187 Mozambique 6.10 882 0.512 Kenya 5.97 1,522 0.229 Zimbabwe 5.73 – 0.172 Uganda 5.70 1,165 0.367 Algeria 5.60 7,339 – Zambia 5.40 1,475 0.328 Sierra Leone 5.37 1,171 0.439 South Africa 5.30 9,860 0.057 Cape Verde 5.23 3,818 – Ghana 5.17 1,764 0.144 Benin 4.80 1,364 0.412 Lesotho 4.50 1,692 0.156 Liberia 4.50 564 0.485 Togo 4.50 906 0.284 Nigeria 4.00 2,294 0.310 Botswana...

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

Changing Patterns of Political Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Kate M. Carter and Scott Straus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,906 words
Illustration(s):
6

...electoral violence. Country List Armed Conflict (PRIO Types 2, 3, 4) Civil War (PRIO Type 3) Angola 1 1 Benin 0 0 Botswana 0 0 Burkina Faso 1 1 Burundi 1 1 Cameroon 1 1 Cape Verde 0 0 Central African Republic 1 1 Chad 1 1 Comoros 1 1 Djibouti 1 1 DRC 1 1 Equatorial Guinea 0 0 Eritrea 1 1 Ethiopia 1 1 Gabon 0 0 Gambia 0 0 Ghana 0 0 Guinea 1 1 Guinea Bissau 1 0 Ivory Coast 1 1 Kenya 0 0 Lesotho 1 0 Liberia 1 1 Madagascar 0 0 Malawi 0 0 Mali 1 1 Mauritania 1 1 Mauritius 0 0 Mozambique 1 1 Namibia 0 0 Niger 1 1 Nigeria 1 1 Republic of Congo 1 1 Rwanda 1 1...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,846 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and the Web of Science website listed 725 references to the introduction of the 1992 IO publication. Figures 1 and 2 show the growth over time of references to epistemic communities in ISI Web of Knowledge tracked journals. By country, citations were overwhelmingly in English-language journals (95 percent), with 2 percent in German, 1 percent in French, 1 percent in Norwegian, and between 0.4 percent and 0.3 percent in Spanish and Portuguese (see Figure 3 ). Disciplinary interest has been quite varied, with political science accounting for 27...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in Kenya . Political Behavior , 1–24. Howard, M. M. , & Roessle, P. G. (2006). Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes . American Journal of Political Science , 50 (2), 365–381. Hyden, G. , & Leys, C. (1972). Elections and politics in single-party systems: The case of Kenya and Tanzania . British Journal of Political Science , 2 (4), 389–420. Kasfir, N. (1976). The shrinking political arena: Participation and ethnicity in African politics, with a case study of Uganda . Berkeley: University of California Press....

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable   Reference library

Susan Dodsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...institutes in six African countries . Higher Education Policy , 30 (2), 203–223. Roper, L. (2002). Achieving successful academic-practitioner research collaborations . Development in Practice , 12 (3–4), 338–345. Science Foundation Ireland . (n.d.). Research impact . Sklar, R. L. (1993). The African frontier for political science. In R. H. Bates , V. Y. Mudimbe , & J. O’Barr (Eds.), Africa and the disciplines: The contributions of research in Africa to the social sciences and humanities (pp. 83–110). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press....

Welfare Politics in Africa

Welfare Politics in Africa   Reference library

Jeremy Seekings

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,567 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Dabalen, & Gaddis, 2016 ; UN, 2015 ). This was a period of strong global economic growth in Africa. Africa’s poverty rate remained stubbornly high because the growth elasticity of poverty is small. Every 1% of economic growth reduces poverty by only 0.7% in Africa, compared to a reduction of 2% elsewhere in the world ( Bicaba et al., 2015 , p. 10). In Africa, many more people have been left behind by economic growth. Development has failed to be broadly inclusive. Social assistance programs cannot eliminate poverty, but they can and do reduce...

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism   Reference library

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Coulibaly, M. , & Bratton, M. (2013). Crisis in Mali: Ambivalent popular attitudes on the way forward. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development , 2 (2). Croke, K. , Grossman, G. , Larreguy, H. A. , & Marshall, J. (2016). Deliberate disengagement: How education can decrease political participation in electoral authoritarian regimes. American Political Science Review , 110 (3), 579–600. Daloz, J. P. (1999). Le(non-) renouvellement des élites en Afrique subsaharienne . Bordeaux, France: CEAN. Dendere, C. (2015). The impact of...

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa

Tax, Politics, and the Social Contract in Africa   Reference library

Wilson Prichard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,764 words
Illustration(s):
3

...social contracts in Africa . New Left Review , 63 , 35–68. Osei, P. (2000). Political liberalisation and the implementation of Value Added Tax in Ghana . Journal of Modern African Studies , 38 (2), 255–278. Paler, L. (2013). Keeping the public purse: An experiment in windfalls, taxes, and the incentives to restrain government . American Political Science Review , 107 (4), 706–725. Paler, L. , Prichard, W. , Sanchez de la Sierra, R. , & Samii, C. (2017). Survey on total tax burden in the DRC, Final Report . Kinshasa, DRC: Department for...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...democratic forms and procedures emerged. Conceptual Issues International democracy policies often base their strategies on implicit notions of democracy and assumptions about the causes or characteristics of democratic transitions. Conceptualizations of democracy in political science range from “minimal” to “maximal” and can be placed on a continuum ranging from authoritarianism to full advanced democracy, as in Schedler ( 1998 ) or, alternatively, be placed in a figure of concentric circles, as shown in Figure 1 (see also, IDEA, 2009 ). At the minimal...

Democratic Norms and Religion

Democratic Norms and Religion   Reference library

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,391 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0.001) Specific indirect effects via: Confidence in institutions 0.001 (0.001) * –0.002 (0.001) ** –0.002 (0.001) ** 0.000 (0.000) –0.003 (0.001) ** Interest in politics 0.002 (0.002) 0.002 (0.001) * 0.002 (0.001) * 0.001 (0.000) 0.002 (0.001) * Direct effect of religious social behavior 0.014 (0.007) * –0.005 (0.003) –0.002 (0.003) 0.009 (0.003) ** –0.016 (0.005) ** Model fit indices: χ ‎ 2 272.200 227.536 227.46 222.962 209.154 TLI 0.946 0.988 0.967 0.972 0.979 CFI 0.982 0.965 0.989 0.991 0.936 RMSEA 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.031 AIC 9,869.615 –27,670.571...

Social Network Influence on Political Behavior in Religious Contexts

Social Network Influence on Political Behavior in Religious Contexts   Reference library

Christina Ladam, Ian Shapiro, and Anand Sokhey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,623 words
Illustration(s):
2

...you, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5?” 11 Figure 1 shows network averages of shared religious affiliation by the familiar tradition categories. For all respondents, the average shared portion of core networks sharing religious affiliation is 0.54 (SE = 0.01; the 0–5 scale was recoded to run 0–1), meaning that just over half of the five individuals a person thought about with this prompt shared their faith. Black Protestant respondents reported the highest level of shared religious affiliation in their networks (mean = 0.69, SE = 0.02), followed by Mormons (mean = 0.64,...

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of Interstate War, 1816–1965. Journal of Conflict Resolution 36 (2), 309–41. Braithwaite, A. (2006) The Geographic Spread of International Conflicts. Journal of Peace Research 43 (5), 507–22. Brueckner, J.K. (2003) Strategic Interaction Among Governments: An Overview of Empirical Studies. International Regional Science Review 26 (2), 175. Buhaug, H. , and Gleditsch, K.S. (2008) Contagion or Confusion? Why Conflicts Cluster in Space. International Studies Quarterly 52 (2), 215–33. Busch, M.L. , and Reinhardt, E. (2006) Three’s a Crowd: Third...

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Jeffrey W. Taliaferro

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,750 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 101–18. Mearsheimer, J.J. (2001) The Tragedy of Great Power Politics . New York: Norton. Mearsheimer, J.J. (2009) Reckless States and Realism. International Relations 23 (2), 241–56. Mercer, J. (2005a) Prospect Theory and Political Science. Annual Review of Political Science 8, 1–21. Mercer, J. (2005b) Rationality and Psychology in International Politics. International Organization 59, 77–106. Midlarsky, M.I. (2005) The Demographics of Genocide: Refugees and Territorial Loss in the Mass Murder...

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics

Xenophobia and Anti-Immigrant Politics   Reference library

Lars Rensmann and Jennifer Miller

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1.9 6.6 7.8–9.9 11.6 12.0 LPF (Netherlands) – – – 11.35 – ** RMZ (Czech Republic) – 6.0 8.0 –3.9 1.0 0.15 Ataka (Bulgaria) – – – 8.9 – VMRO – BND (Bulgaria) – 6.5 9.4 5.7 *** – FN (France) 9.7 12.6 15.0 11.3 4.3 BNP (Great Britain) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.20.7 No election MIÉP (Hungary) – 1.58 5.5 4.4 2.2 LPR (Poland) – – – 7.9– 8.0 1.3 Samoobrona (Poland) 2.8 0.1 10.2– 11.3 2.5 PUNR (Romania) – 7.9 4.4...

The Spatial Analysis of War

The Spatial Analysis of War   Reference library

Clionadh Raleigh, Frank D.W. Witmer, and John O’Loughlin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,825 words
Illustration(s):
2

...science, IR and related fields can assist in understanding these new realities. Clionadh Raleigh , Frank D.W. Witmer , and John O’Loughlin Trinity College Dublin, University of Colorado, Boulder, and University of Colorado, Boulder References Afoaku, O. (2002) Congo’s Rebels: Their Origins, Motivations, and Strategies. In J.F. Clark (ed.) The African States in the Congo War . New York: Palgrave, pp. 109–29. Africa Confidential (1998) Uganda and Rwanda in Congo, p. 39 (July 2). Africa Confidential (1999) Rebel Splits in Congo, pp. 40–2...

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics   Reference library

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The indirect effects of discredited stereotypes in judgments of Jewish leaders. American Journal of Political Science , 49 (4), 845–864. Boas, T. C. (2014). Pastor Paulo vs. Doctor Carlos: Professional titles as voting heuristics in Brazil. Journal of Politics in Latin America , 6 (2), 39–72. Boas, T. C. (2016). Pastors for Pinochet: Authoritarian stereotypes and voting for evangelicals in Chile. Journal of Experimental Political Science , 3 , 197–205. Boas, T. C. , & Smith, A. E. (2015). Religion and the Latin American voter. In R. E. Carlin ,...

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions   Reference library

Stephen G. Walker and Mark Schafer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,684 words
Illustration(s):
2

...control becomes asymmetrical without any change in the valences for the Self (I-1, I-2) and Other (P-1,P-2) indices, then the stronger (>) party will have a propensity to engage in Bully (EDE) tactics and expect the weaker party to engage in Bluff (EED) tactics. Figure 2 Verbs in context attribution indices for operational code beliefs Notes : *All indices vary between 0 and 1.0 except for P-1, P-2, I-1, and I-2, which vary between -1.0 and +1.0. P-2 and I-2 are divided by 3 to standardize the range (Walker et al. 1998; 2003). **“The Index of Qualitative...

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War

Interventions/Uses of Force Short of War   Reference library

Brandon C. Prins

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Studies Quarterly 13 (2), 190–222. Ghosn, F. , Palmer, G. , and Bremer, S.A. (2004) The MID3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, Coding Rules, and Description. Conflict Management and Peace Science 21 (2), 133–54. Gleditsch, N.P. (1992) Democracy and Peace. Journal of Peace Research 29 (2), 369–76. Gleditsch, N.P. (1995) Geography, Democracy, and Peace. International Interactions 20, 297–323. Gleditsch, N.P. , and Hegre, H. (1997) Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (2), 283–310. Gleditsch, N.P...

Women National Leaders

Women National Leaders   Reference library

Francine D’Amico

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,448 words
Illustration(s):
1

...countries 41.4% – – Americas 21.5% 20.4% 21.3% Europe – OSCE member countries including Nordic countries 21.2% 19.4% 20.9% Europe – OSCE member countries excluding Nordic countries 19.3% 19.4% 19.3% Asia 18.4% 16.5% 18.2% Sub-Saharan Africa 18.2% 21.0% 18.5% Pacific 13.0% 32.6% 15.2% Arab States 9.7% 7.0% 9.1% Regions are classified by descending order of the percentage of women in the lower or single House Source : Inter-Parliamentary Union...

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