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Smeaton, John

Smeaton, John (1724–92)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,088 words
Illustration(s):
6

...mv 2 . Again, before collision, m 1 v 1 2 + m 2 v 2 2 = ( 8 × 20 2 ) + ( 8 × 0 2 ) = 3200. After collision, if mv 2 is conserved we must have ( m 1 + m 2 ) × v 3 2 = 3200 16 v 3 2 = 3200 v 3 2 = 200 v 3 = 10 × √ 2 = 14.142 … So the velocity is increased in the collision by a factor of √2 and this, says Smeaton, implies the possibility of perpetual motion. The conception of perfectly hard bodies is therefore ‘repugnant’, that is, incoherent. According to the old opinion, it is mv that is conserved. Before collision, m 1 v 1 + m 2 v 2 = ( 8 × 20 ) + ( 8 × 0 )...

logic

logic   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,744 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., ‘ Logic: In Reference of the Recent English Treatises on that Science ’, Edinburgh Review 66 (1833), pp. 194–238. van Heijenoort, Jean , From Frege to Gödel: A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879–1931 (Cambridge, Mass. and London, 1967). Jevons, William Stanley , Pure Logic , or the Logic of Quality apart from Quantity with Remarks on Boole's System and the Relation of Logic and Mathematics (London and New York, 1864). ——, The Principles of Science: A Treatise on Scientific Method , 2 vols (1874). Joachim, Harold Henry , The Nature of Truth ...

Body

Body   Reference library

Sherri Irvin

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,421 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty . New York: Doubleday, 1999. Garland Thompson , Rosemarie. Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature . New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. Gullette, Margaret Morganroth . Aged by Culture . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. Halberstam, Judith . Female Masculinity . Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998. Hanson, Karen . “Dressing Down Dressing Up: The Philosophic Fear of Fashion.” Hypatia 5, no. 2 (1990): 107–121. Hobson, Janell . ...

Evolution

Evolution   Reference library

Stephen Davies

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,865 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the psychologists’ theories to analyze art and explain how it interests and moves people as it does. The result has been called “evocriticism.” Evocriticism has been applied to the critical examination of many novels, Shakespearian drama, poetic lyrics, popular genres such as science fiction, folk tales, and narratives told by hunter-foragers. Typically, these works are approached singly, though some statistically aggregated cross-genre studies have been attempted. Notice that evocriticism need not be committed to literary Darwinism, which was described...

Conceptual Art

Conceptual Art   Reference library

Jacob Stewart-Halevy, Michael Baldwin, Charles Harrison, Mel Ramsden, Mary Kelly, and Yair Guttmann

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,663 words
Illustration(s):
2

...culture—a resistance that recognized the efficiency of the criticism and the power of the distributive instruments to co-opt resistance itself. An Interview with Mayo Thompson , 2009 (acrylic on canvas and mixed media; three chairs: 1. 101.3 × 47.5 × 39.0 cm; 2. 100.0 × 49.4 × 36.7 cm; 3. 105.2 × 48.5 × 41.0 cm), Art & Language. courtesy of the artist Locally, this resistance developed during the late 1960s both in the face of the new modernist professionalism of the Minimalists and as an extension—or reductio ad absurdum—of the Minimalists’ concern with...

signal detection theory

signal detection theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,028 words
Illustration(s):
2

...model as criterion is varied in Fig. S1 is plotted in Fig. S2. The HR and FAR produced by Cj and the Lenient criterion in Fig. S1 are marked on the ROC. The Lenient and Very Strict criteria would result in performance very close to (1,1) and (0,0), respectively, and d ′ would be unmeasurable. Also, with criteria as extreme as this, forced‐choice responding, which is normally considered to give criterion‐free measures, would have performance near chance when d ′ was otherwise measurable Fig. S2 . Receiver operating characteristic (ROC). It plots how Hits...

filling‐in

filling‐in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,908 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bar crosses over the blind spot ( Fiorani et al. 1992 ), and cells in V2 have been designated as the neural *correlates of brightness filling‐in ( Roe et al. 2005 ). Moreover, both for brightness ( Rossi and Paradiso 2003 ) and textural filling‐in ( Spillman and De Weerd 2003 ), psychophysical investigations have unveiled a temporal dynamics as of a gradual filling‐in process, and, in the case of brightness, this has been measured as having a roughly constant speed of 0.15–0.4 m/s ( Rossi and Paradiso 2003 ). The discovery of empirical...

attractor networks

attractor networks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,603 words
Illustration(s):
2

...’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 5. Rumelhart, D. E. , Smolensky, P. , McClelland, J. L. , and Hinton, G. E. (1986). ‘Schemata and sequential thought processes in PDP models.’ In Rumelhart, D. E. et al. (eds) Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition , Vol. 2. Searle, J. R. (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind . Sergent, C. and Dehaene, S. (2004). ‘ Is consciousness a gradual phenomenon? Evidence for an allornone bifurcation during the attentional blink ’. Psychological Science , 15. Smolensky, P. (1988)....

flash‐lag effect

flash‐lag effect   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,439 words
Illustration(s):
3

...downward arrows depict transmission of signals from the retinal ganglion cells to cortex with a delay of 0.1 s. (b) An observer viewing a moving tennis ball (motion in the direction of arrow) should perceive the ball as occupying the position it actually occupied up to 0.1 s ago. Outline circle depicts perceived position of the tennis ball. For a tennis ball travelling at 30 mph (50 km/h), the lag, known as the ds‐error, should be more than 4 feet (1.2 m). The frequently quoted value of the flash‐lag effect in time units is 80 ms ( Nijhawan 1994 ); the...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...arts and to aesthetic values is limited. Art has a greater degree of freedom than science. Even if the scientist elucidates certain principles and limits of the visual perception of form, science cannot dictate to the artist what he should do. The frontiers of the visual arts must be set by the creative artist himself. See also art as perceptual experience . Richard Jung Arnheim, R. (1956). Art and Visual Perception . Gombrich, E. H. (1962). Art and Illusion (2nd edn.). Helmholtz, H. von (1871–3). Optisches über Malerei . Hering, E. (1878). Zur...

action, scientific perspectives

action, scientific perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,815 words
Illustration(s):
1

...106. Ramachandran, V. S. and Rogers‐Ramachandran, D. (1996). ‘ Synaesthesia in phantom limbs induced with mirrors ’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences , 263. Sirigu, A. , Duhamel, J. R. , Cohen, L. , Pillon, B. , Dubois, B. , and Agid, Y. (1996). ‘ The mental representation of hand movements after parietal cortex damage ’. Science , 273. ——, Daprati, E. , Pradat‐Diehl, P. , Franck, N. , and Jeannerod, M. (1999). ‘ Perception of self‐generated movement following left parietal lesion ’. Brain , 122. Spence,...

Digital Media

Digital Media   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,396 words
Illustration(s):
1

...into New Media Technologies 2.2 (Autumn 1996): 30–45. Bove, V. Michael, Jr. Multimedia Based on Object Models: Some Whys and Hows . IBM Systems Journal 35.3–4 (1996): 337–348. Glassner, Andrew S. Principles of Digital Image Synthesis . San Francisco, 1995. Gortler, Steven J., Radek Grzeszczuk, Richard Szeliski, and Michael F. Cohen . The Lumigraph. In Computer Graphics Proceedings: Annual Conference Series , pp. 43–54. New York, 1996. Greenberg, Donald P. Computers and Architecture . Scientific American 264.2 (1991): 104–109. Grundberg, Andy ....

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,778 words
Illustration(s):
1

...different art forms and his integration of “high” artistic values into “low” genres remain, for most readers, an unsurpassable summa. chinese aesthetics . Wang Fu, Remembering Ni Zan's “Wutong Tree and Bamboo by a Thatched Pavillion” (1408), hanging scroll, ink on paper, 104.0 × 30.2 cm; Art Museum, Princeton University (Gift of Professor Wen Fong, class of 1951, and Mrs. Fong, in honor of John B. Elliot, class of 1951). (Photograph copyright 1998 by the Trustees of Princeton University; used by permission.) Commentaries on novels, attentive to technique and...

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