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Fourier analysis

Fourier analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
198 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( x ) = a 0 / 2 + ∑ n = 1 ∞ ( a n cos n x + b n sin n x ) . A series of this type is called a Fourier series . If the function is periodic with a period 2 π ‎, the coefficients a 0 , a n , b n are: a 0 = ∫ − π π f ( x ) d x , a n = ∫ − π π f ( x ) cos n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ) , b n = 1 / π ∫ − π π f ( x ) sin n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ) . Fourier analysis and Fourier series are named after the French mathematician and engineer Joseph Fourier ( 1768–1830 ). Fourier series have many important applications in mathematics, science, and...

Fourier analysis

Fourier analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
204 words
Illustration(s):
2

...f ( x ) = a 0 / 2 + ∑ n = 1 ∞ ( a n cos n x + b n sin n x ) A series of this type is called a Fourier series . If the function is periodic with a period 2 π ‎, the coefficients a 0 , a n , b n are: a 0 = ∫ - π + π f ( x ) d x , a n = ∫ - π + π f ( x ) cos n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ) , b n = ∫ - π + π 1 / π f ( x ) sin n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , .… ) . Fourier analysis and Fourier series are named after the French mathematician and engineer Joseph Fourier ( 1768–1830 ). Fourier series have many important applications in mathematics, science, and...

education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...careers in science? What keeps them interested? Table 2. Distributions of Percentages of Students Planning Further Study in 19 Selected Countries by Science Area Area 5th Percentile 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile 95th Percentile Biological Sciences 2.2 3.5 4.0 5.2 6.5 Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table...

reassociation kinetics

reassociation kinetics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
332 words
Illustration(s):
1

...curve, which plots the fraction of molecules that have reannealed against the log of cot. Cot values are defined as C 0 × t, where C 0 is the initial concentration of single-stranded DNA in moles of nucleotides per liter and t is the reannealing time in seconds. Typical cot curves are shown below. DNAs reannealing at low cot values (10 −4 –10 −1 ) are composed of highly repetitive sequences, DNAs reannealing at cot values between 10 0 and 10 2 are moderately repetitive, and DNAs reannealing at higher cot values are nonrepetitive. See Appendix C , 1968,...

Democratic Norms and Religion

Democratic Norms and Religion   Reference library

Gizem Arikan and Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,391 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0.001) Specific indirect effects via: Confidence in institutions 0.001 (0.001) * –0.002 (0.001) ** –0.002 (0.001) ** 0.000 (0.000) –0.003 (0.001) ** Interest in politics 0.002 (0.002) 0.002 (0.001) * 0.002 (0.001) * 0.001 (0.000) 0.002 (0.001) * Direct effect of religious social behavior 0.014 (0.007) * –0.005 (0.003) –0.002 (0.003) 0.009 (0.003) ** –0.016 (0.005) ** Model fit indices: χ ‎ 2 272.200 227.536 227.46 222.962 209.154 TLI 0.946 0.988 0.967 0.972 0.979 CFI 0.982 0.965 0.989 0.991 0.936 RMSEA 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.031 AIC 9,869.615 –27,670.571...

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,785 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(tons) Asia 36.4 2.3  China 14.0 2.7  Japan 5.0 9.0  India 4.0 1.0  South Korea 1.6 8.3  North Korea 1.1 0.2  Iran 1.2 3.8  Saudi Arabia 1.1 13.9  Singapore 0.3 19.1 Europe 27.5 8.5  Russia 8.0 12.2  Germany 3.7 10.2  United Kingdom 2.4 9.3  Ukraine 1.9 8.5  Italy 1.8 7.2  France 1.5 5.9  Poland 1.5 8.8 North America 26.0 19.9  United States 24.0 20.5  Canada 1.9 14.8  Mexico 1.6 3.9 South America 3.3 2.4  Brazil 1.1 1.6  Argentina 0.6 3.7 Africa 3.3 1.1  South Africa 1.3 7.4  Algeria 0.4 3.3  Egypt 0.4 1.5 Central America 2.1 3.6  Cuba 0.1 1.5 Oceania 1.4...

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence   Reference library

Titus J. Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
29,925 words
Illustration(s):
41

...d H = Mortality by 2007, hazard ratio (0.60/0.65) c E = Years of education (9.74/9.59) M/F 0.963 *** /0.951 *** {0.951–0.975}/{0.937–0.965} [Table 3, Column 3] M/F 0.948 *** /0.962 * {0.914–0.984}/{0.925–1.001} [Table 3, Column 4] van den Berg et al. (2012) e Danish Twin Registry Birth cohorts 1888–1897 N = 2,839/2,856 H = Mortality (0.62) E = Eligible for reform that expanded voluntary education (0.5/0.5) M/F –0.194 ** /–0.063 (0.086)/(0.080) [Table 11/12, Column 1] M/F –0.183 ** /–0.054 f (0.088)/(0.087) [Table 11/12, Column 3] Behrman et al....

signature

signature   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
511 words
Illustration(s):
2

...over A , where n = ρ ‎( σ ‎). As an example, suppose Then one Σ ‎-algebra results from taking the set of all integers as carrier, and associating the number 0 with ‘zero’, 1 with ‘one’, addition with ‘plus’, and multiplication with ‘times’. As indicated by ρ ‎, addition and multiplication are 2-argument functions while zero and one, being constants, expect no arguments and their arity is 0. It is important to realize that the above example describes only one possible Σ ‎-algebra. For example, the carrier could be the real numbers; or, perversely...

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,681 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2 935 1 692 Armenia 1 376 0 0 Belgium 7 5,801 0 0 Brazil 2 1,901 0 0 Bulgaria 4 2,722 0 0 Canada 18 12,599 0 0 China 9 6,602 2 2,000 Czech Republic 6 3,528 0 0 Finland 4 2,676 1 1,600 France 59 63,363 0 0 Germany 17 20,339 0 0 Hungary 4 1,755 0 0 India 15 3,040 8 3,602 Iran 0 0 1 915 Japan 55 46,772 2 1,933 Korea, Republic of 20 16,810 0 0 Lithuania 1 1,185 0 0 Mexico 2 1,310 0 0 Netherlands 1 449 0 0 Pakistan 2 425 0 0 Romania 1 655 1 655 Russian Federation 31 21,743 4 3,775 Slovak Republic 6 2,442 0 0 Slovenia 1 656 0 0 South Africa 2 1,800 0 0 Spain...

Ocean Chemistry

Ocean Chemistry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,095 words
Illustration(s):
3

...+2 0.404 8,000,000 0.0147 Potassium K + 0.390 11,000,000 0.0014 Bicarbonate 0.105 0.0530 Bromide Br − 0.065 Boric acid H 3 BO 3 0.026 Strontium Sr +2 0.0078 19,000,000 fluoride F − 0.0013 Minor Constituents ‡ Silicon Si 0.003 10,000 0.0049 Lithium Li 0.00018 19,000,000 Rubidium Rb 0.00012 270,000 Iodine I 0.00006 Iron Fe 0.00001 140 Aluminum Al 0.00001 100 Molybdenum Mo 0.00001 500,000 Barium Ba 0.00001 84,000 arsenic As 0.000004 Uranium U 0.0000033 Nitrogen N 2 0.01–0.02 Oxygen O 2 0.0001–0.010 Carbon dioxide CO 2 0.0004–0.004 5–10 Nitrate NO 3 0.000005–0...

Hubble Space Telescope

Hubble Space Telescope   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
907 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Space Telescope Science Institute ( STScI ) in Baltimore, Maryland, responsible for conducting and coordinating science operations. The 2.4-metre reflecting telescope was deployed by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery in low-Earth orbit at an altitude of 600 kilometres in April 1990 . HST's current complement of science instruments includes three cameras, two spectrographs, and fine guidance sensors (primarily used for accurate positional observations). Because of HST's location above the Earth's atmosphere, these science instruments can produce...

Smith, Tony

Smith, Tony (23 Sept 1912)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
479 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1961 , Smith decided to forgo architecture in favor of sculpture. He made his first metal sculpture, The Black Box , in 1962 (0.57×0.84×0.64 m; Ottawa, N.G.). In addition to creating rectangular-based works, he combined complex solid modules, as in Amaryllis ( 1965 , 3.5×2.2×3.5 m; New York, Met.). His works are founded on principles of geometric abstraction and of primitive and modern architecture, as well as of science and mathematics; there are also frequent literary connections, such as in Gracehoper ( 1961–72 , 6.91×7.32×14.20 m; Detroit, MI,...

Chlorofluorocarbons

Chlorofluorocarbons   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,012 words
Illustration(s):
2

...CCl 3 F 1.0 4,000 60 270 falling CFC-12 CCl 2 F 2 1.0 8,500 100 550 level CFC-13 CClF 3 1.0 11,700 640 CFC-113 C 2 Cl 3 F 3 0.8 5,000 90 80 level CFC-114 C 2 Cl 2 F 4 1.0 9,300 200 CFC-115 C 2 ClF 5 0.6 9,300 400 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) As substitutes for CFCs HCFC-22 CHClF 2 0.05 1,600 13 HCFC-123 CF 3 CHCl 2 0.02 90 2 HCFC-124 CF 3 CHClF 0.02 480 6 HCFC-141b CH 3 CFCl 2 0.10 600 9 HCFC-142b CH 3 CF 2 Cl 0.06 2,000 19 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) As substitutes for CFCs HFC-23 CHF 3 nil 11,700 250 HFC-32 CH 2 F 2 nil 650 6 HFC-125 C 2 HF 5 nil 2,800 30...

Chinese Lunar Exploration Programme

Chinese Lunar Exploration Programme   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
349 words
Illustration(s):
1

...successful lander/rover mission. Launched on 2 December 2013 , Chang’e 3 landed on the Moon in northwestern Mare Imbrium 12 days later. On 14 December, the Yutu rover separated from the lander and traversed for a total of 0.114 km. The lander and rover each carried four science instruments to investigate the geology, morphology, and chemical composition of the landing area. The instruments were also designed to explore the terrestrial-lunar space environment and to make lunar-based astronomical...

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
297 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for evidence that water persisted on the surface of the planet long enough to sustain life. Launched from Cape Canaveral on 12 August 2005 , the craft arrived at Mars on 10 March 2006 , when it began imaging the Martian landscapes in unprecedented detail, to a resolution of 0.20.3 m. The orbiter is also using radar to probe underground layers for water and ice (to determine the composition and origins of surface minerals, and track changes in atmospheric water and dust) and a spectrometer to identify types of water-related minerals. Among its numerous...

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments   Reference library

Deborah J. Street and Rosalie Viney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,342 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Table 4. A Generator-Developed DCE From an OA[8; 2 4 , 4;2] Choice Set OA Option 2 Option 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 4 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 5 1 0 0 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 7 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 The easiest way to summarize the systematic changes is to represent them by a k -tuple of numbers, which is called a generator . This generator is added to each row of the OA in turn to get the next option in the...

Potential Vorticity

Potential Vorticity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,000 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be isolated at a location ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ), then in an unbounded domain, the stream function associated with that piece should decay in all directions like 1/ r , where r 2 = ( x – x 0 ) 2 + ( y – y 0 ) 2 + [ N / f 0 ) ( z – z 0 )] 2 . The pressure is low and the circulation cyclonic if q ′ g > 0, but if q ′ g < 0, the pressure is locally high and the circulation is anticyclonic. In this solution, the ratio of the horizontal and vertical decay scales is given by N / f 0 , meaning that if N is small, or f 0 is large, the circulation...

Orbital Parameters and Equations

Orbital Parameters and Equations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,181 words
Illustration(s):
4

...have: H = 2 π τ t s where τ is the interval of 24 hours. Therefore: d H = 2 π τ d t s ∼ 2 π τ d t and the integration of Equation 5 leads to the daily irradiation W d measured in joules per square meter: W d = ∫ 24 h W   d t = S ρ 2 τ 2 π ( ∫ − 12 − H 0 cos z d H + ∫ − H 0 H 0 cos z d H + ∫ H 0 12 cos z d H ) where the first and third terms are equal to zero because they correspond to insolation received during the night, and the second term represents insolation received between sunrise (− H 0 ) and sunset ( H 0 ), H 0 being given by cos H 0 = − tan φ...

Water Resources

Water Resources   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,193 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1,802 2,340 1,298 0.17 6.68  Arctic islands 226 83.5 369 0.006 0.24  Mountainous regions 224 40.6 181 0.003 0.12 Ground ice/permafrost 21,000 300 14 0.022 0.86 Water reserves in lakes 2,058.7 176.4 85.7 0.013 —  Fresh 1,236.4 91 73.6 0.007 0.26  Saline 822.3 85.4 103.8 0.006 — Swamp water 2,682.5 11.47 4.28 0.0008 0.03 River flows 148,800 2.12 0.014 0.0002 0.006 Biological water 510,000 1.12 0.002 0.0001 0.003 Atmospheric water 510,000 12.9 0.025 0.001 0.04 Total water reserves 510,000 1,385,984 2,781 100 — Total fresh water reserves 148,800 35,029 235 2.53...

Oxygen Cycle

Oxygen Cycle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of free O 2 in the Earth's atmosphere over the past 1.8 billion years. More stringent constraints on the level of atmospheric O 2 can be deduced for the final 500 million years, the time span during which animals and higher plants evolved and spread quickly on land. To maintain viable conditions for these organisms, the concentration (or partial pressure) of atmospheric O 2 must have stayed within fairly narrow bounds, probably between 0.1 and 0.4 atmospheres (the present level is 0.21 atmospheres). As discussed below, such a stable O 2 level implies...

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