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Rufinus

Subject: Religion

(fl. 399–401?), commonly called the Syrian, author of a Liber de Fide, described in the only known MS as the work of Rufinus, priest of the province of Palestine. The fact that ...

assisi

assisi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
445 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by Paul III . In the city's traditional system, the chapter of St Rufinus , established in the cathedral church built by Bishop Hugo between 1019 and 1028 , seems (at least according to the magnificent archives, unedited) to have had more importance than the bishop . On the Hugonian edifice arose the new cathedral, begun in 1140 but completed only in the first years of the 13th century. It was there that Frederick II was baptized. In the city, the chapter of St Rufinus concurred, with the episcopal clientele and the imperial boni homines ,...

wisdom books

wisdom books   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
447 words
Illustration(s):
1

...attributed to Solomon (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs), the book of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus. Medieval commentators particularly perceived a link between the three books of Solomon; following the prologue to Origen 's commentary on the Song of Songs, translated by Rufinus , they saw in them the three parts of science (Pr = ethics , Eccl = physics, Song = logic or theology ); again following Origen, the succession of these same books corresponded to the three stages of the spiritual life. Apart from the Song (studied apart), it was mainly...

Theodosios I

Theodosios I   Reference library

Timothy E. Gregory and Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
458 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and Symmachus . In 390 , during a riot in Thessalonike, Theodosios supported the barbarian soldiers against the city population and severely punished the citizens, for which he was compelled by Ambrose to do penance. He was surrounded by energetic assistants ( Stilicho , Rufinus , etc.)—Spaniards, barbarians, and Easterners—and brought about the recovery of the state after the disaster of the Gothic invasions. He had to deal with several revolts (esp. those of Maximus and Eugenius ) and with the opposition of the Roman aristocracy. Theodosios was...

Legendary

Legendary   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
563 words
Illustration(s):
1

...genre, to the point that the term “ passionary ” was often used to designate any hagiographical collection whatever, even when works relating to confessors were numerous in it. The earliest hagiographical collection attested in the West could be the Historia monachorum that Rufinus translated into Latin in c. 404 . The first collections of acts of martyrs could date from around 600 . From the same period come signs of the existence of a specific passionary of the apostles. Between the Carolingian period and the early 12th c., general legendaries...

Descent into Hell

Descent into Hell   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
915 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Christ 's Descent into Hell (or into Limbo ) and of his purpose (notably in the Psalms, Acts 2, 24-31 and 1 Pet 3, 18-20). The Credo affirms it, but the formula never appears in the creeds before the 4th century. In the West, its first mention ( c. 404 ) appears in Rufinus, in the baptismal creed of the Church of Aquileia ( Expositio symboli , 12, 15, 26: PL , 21, 352-355). In the theology and liturgy of the Eastern Churches the formula appears early, in a paschal and baptismal context, and is contained in the formularies of some councils ,...

Limes Arabicus

Limes Arabicus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,109 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and the lucrative caravan traffic that passed through the region against the raids of nomadic Arab tribes (Saraceni, or Saracens) from the adjacent desert. [See Hasa, Wadi el- ; ῾Aqaba .] Only two literary sources explicitly refer to the limes Arabicus. The church historian Rufinus ( Hist. Eccl. 2.6), describing the assault on the frontier by the Saracen queen Mavia during the reign of Valens ( 364–378 ce ), refers to the “towns and cities of the limes Arabicus.” The historian Ammianus Marcellinus (31.3.5), describing events leading up the battle of...

Vulgate and Other Ancient Latin Translations

Vulgate and Other Ancient Latin Translations   Reference library

Paul B. Harvey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,516 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with older Latin versions. His response was that, while the LXX and its derivative, the extant VL translations, were “useful for churches,” Christian scholars should surely appreciate that, as did “apostolic men” (Luke and Paul), he too used reliable Hebrew sources (see Against Rufinus 2.34–5 and Letter 57.10). In time, Augustine acknowledged that, while many Latin churches relied on the VL, Jerome was indeed a man “most learned and knowledgeable of all three languages” ( City of God , 18.43). Indeed, in his On Christian Education , Augustine explicitly...

Armenian

Armenian   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,941 words
Illustration(s):
1

...must have been inadequate for transcribing certain Armenian consonants by a single sign; hence, there is no evidence for writing Armenian in either Greek, Syriac, or Latin script prior to Maštoc῾. His alphabet of thirty-six characters, which was refined by a calligrapher named Rufinus at Samosata permitted a phonetically perfect transcription of the language ( see figure 1 ). Pupils were sent to Edessa and Constantinople to study Syriac and Greek, to acquire choice manuscripts, and to translate. Later on, in keeping with his missionary endeavors, Maštoc῾...

Pergamon

Pergamon   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,559 words
Illustration(s):
5

...at its lower level by a series of rooms with curving walls, probably accommodated the ritual of incubation whereby patients were healed while sleeping within the Sanctuary . To the north is the Roman Temple of Asklepios, the gift of the Roman consul L. Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus in ad 150 ; it is clearly modelled, though to a smaller scale (diam. 23.5 m), on the Pantheon at Rome (diam. 43.2 m), an interesting example of direct influence of Imperial Roman architectural form on Asia Minor . To the north of this temple, beyond the propylon, is the...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,088 words
Illustration(s):
3

...converted to Christianity about 340 c.e ., employs both names. This is the first known use of the word “Ethiopia” by one of its own rulers to describe part of the modern country. The land was usually called Aksum, after its capital. According to early church historians such as Rufinus of Aquileia (345?–410 c.e .), a young Syrian named Frumentius brought Christianity to Ethiopia. Around 330 c.e . he was made bishop of Aksum by Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria . This established a custom that continued for over sixteen centuries. Until 1959 the...

Hawks, Eagles, and Old World Vultures

Hawks, Eagles, and Old World Vultures   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
7,519 words
Illustration(s):
10

...and 22 Vulnerable. See Hawks, Eagles, and Vultures Representative species of larger accipitrids: 1 Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni) migrates from Alaska to Argentina, flying down the Central American isthmus to avoid a long sea crossing; 2 Long-legged buzzard (B. rufinus); 3 The Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a highly efficient fish-hunter, but will often pirate its food from ospreys in areas where the two species coincide; 4 Spanish Imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti); 5 Ornate hawk-eagle (Spizaetus ornatus); 6 Verreaux's eagle...

Caesarea

Caesarea   Reference library

Joseph Patrich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

...copies of scriptures. In ca. 325 c.e. , at the request of Constantine, 50 copies of the Bible, in codices of parchment, were dispatched by Eusebius to Constantinople. Later in the fourth century Hilary of Poitiers, Eusebius of Vercelli, Georgius of Nazianzus, Jerome, and Rufinus worked in this library. Samaritans. The Samaritan presence in Caesarea grew after the first and second Jewish Revolts against Rome. In the third century c.e. they constituted the largest ethnic group in the city. There was much friction between them and the Jews, and by the...

Canon

Canon   Reference library

C. A. Evans, Rebecca S. Hancock, Stephen B. Chapman, and Stanley E. Porter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
24,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Vulgate—however, when pressed he finally did produce translations of the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel, Tobit, and Judith. Doubts about the full canonicity of the deuterocanonical books were also expressed by Julius Africanus, Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Rufinus, John of Damascus, Nicholas of Lyra, Ximenes, and Cajetan, among others. This scholarly position emphasized the character of the Greek Bible (or Septuagint) as a translation from the “Hebrew truth” (Latin: hebraica veritas ). By the Renaissance, controversy had intensified over...

Cicero

Cicero (106–43bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
12,343 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., or Dialogue on Orators ), and Quintilian discuss his style and views on rhetoric and philosophy, and Macrobius wrote a commentary on the Dream of Scipio . Cicero also had great influence on early Christian writers. Tertullian, Minucius Felix, Lactantius, Victorinus, and Rufinus wrote works heavily influenced by Cicero, and Saint Ambrose modeled his De officiis ministrorum ( On the Duties of the Clergy ) on Cicero's On Duties . Saints Jerome and Augustine each studied Cicero extensively. Jerome tells in a letter (22.30) that he studied Cicero so...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or alluded to by Ignatius of Antioch, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Lactantius, Pachomius, Athanasius, Horsiesi, Ephrem the Syrian, Methodius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Ambrose, Jerome, John Chrysostom, Rufinus of Aquileia, Augustine, John Cassian, Cyril of Alexandria, Theodoret of Cyr, Salvian the Presbyter of Marseilles, Leo the Great, Cassiodorus, Gregory the Great, Bede, Isaac of Nineveh, and others. Wilson, Robert R. Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel . 2d. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress...

Text Criticism

Text Criticism   Reference library

James R. Royse

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
24,734 words
Illustration(s):
4

... 14:23 and 16:24 in other important witnesses (A 33), while it is completely missing in one branch of the Western tradition (F G). And indeed we have Origen's testimony that Marcion's version of Romans was lacking chapters 15–16 , although he (through the translation of Rufinus) castigates Marcion himself for omitting these chapters. Accepting Origen's statement at face value, we would conclude that Marcion found a text of Romans with sixteen chapters, and excised the last two of them. However, it is difficult to see how the existence of this...

Poetry, Greek

Poetry, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
29,051 words
Illustration(s):
4

... ce ) and Nicarchus ( c.80 ce )—started to focus on satirical topics, which through the reception of the Latin poet Martial ( c.40–103 ce ) came to be most closely associated with the epigrammatic genre in modern European literature. Also active in the first century ce was Rufinus, to whom the Greek Anthology attributes around forty highly erotic epigrams, followed by Strato of Sardis, who wrote a collection of pederastic poems entitled Paidikē Mousa . Last but not least, the Greek epigram experienced a renaissance in the sixth century ce when...

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