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Richard Theodore Ely

Subject: Philosophy

(1854–1943)

Richard T. Ely was born on 13 April 1854 in Ripley, New York, and died on 4 October 1943 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He grew up in Fredonia in ...

Greener, Richard T.

Greener, Richard T. (b. 30 January 1844)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,145 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Richard T. ( b. 30 January 1844 ; d. 2 May 1922 ), the first African American graduate of Harvard University. Over the course of his life Richard Theodore Greener distinguished himself as a lawyer, college professor, librarian, dean, politician, school principal, and America's consular in Vladivostok (Russia). With the support of the Harvard-affiliated educator George Herbert Palmer , Greener participated in a program to expose an African American to a Harvard education. Although poor grades resulted in his repeating his first year, Greener went on to...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,537 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Chronicle , April 19, 2007. Lobban, Richard A. “Eritrean Liberation Front: A Close Up View.” Munger Africana Library Notes 13.Pasadena, Calif.: California Institute of Technology. 1972. Lobban, Richard A. “ The Eritrean War: Issues and Implications. ” Canadian Journal of African Studies 10(2): 335–346. 1976. Longrigg, Stephen H. A Short History of Eritrea . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945. OʾFahey, R. S. “ Sudanese (and some other) Sources for Eritrean History, A Bibliographical Note. ” Sudanic Africa 12(2001): 131–142. Richard A. Lobban,...

American Literature

American Literature   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,828 words
Illustration(s):
1

...realism with a detailed attention to local color. His narratives are characterized by ironic comic tones. At the turn of the century, realism evolved into naturalism, influenced by the fiction and theoretical writings of the French author Émile Zola . Naturalists such as Theodore Dreiser , Stephen Crane , and Frank Norris focused on harsher aspects of life than the realists had and on their characters' inability to direct their own actions. The Twentieth Century. The literary works of the twentieth century, the century of modernism and postmodernism,...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,750 words
Illustration(s):
1

...beyond the restraints of Western culture, but also a conception of the Near East as wild and cruel. Delacroix's viewpoint was communicated to his friends and followers, including Jules-Robert Auguste ( 1789–1850 ; he traveled to the East before Delacroix), Richard Parkes Bonington ( 1802–28 ), Théodore Chassériau ( 1819–56 ) and Adolf Schreyer ( 1828–99 ). The association of the Near East with turbulence and cruelty was ubiquitous, beyond the influence of one artist, and is found in such works of disparate style and date as Revolt at Cairo ( 1810 ;...

Missionary Movements

Missionary Movements   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,637 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Albany, part of the so-called burnt-over district and birthplace of so many nineteenthcentury enthusiasms, the AMA was born in 1846 . Of the twelve men who served on the first board of the AMA four were African Americans: Theodore S. Wright , Samuel Ringgold Ward , James Pennington, and Charles Bennett Ray. In later years Samuel E. Cornish, Henry Highland Garnet , Amos N. Freeman, and Sella Martin also served as officers. They were educated activists; many edited newspapers at some period of their lives; and all contributed widely to black and...

Executive Power

Executive Power   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,948 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Historical Analysis . 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. Greenstein, Fred I. The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Clinton . New York: Martin Kessler, 2000. Lowi, Theodore J. The Personal President: Power Invested, Promise Unfulfilled . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985. Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan . New York: Free Press, 1990. Rakove, Jack N. Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the...

Politics and Politicians

Politics and Politicians   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,751 words
Illustration(s):
1

...things essential to mutual progress” (quoted in Horton and Horton, p. 209). Washington proposed a policy of gradualism and accommodation to resolve racial problems. This position endeared him to some whites, earned him a visit to the Theodore Roosevelt White House for dinner, and gave him some political influence in the Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft administrations, especially in recommending blacks for political appointments. In the absence of suffrage, blacks like Washington were given some political power within the Republican Party, but even...

Muslims, Black

Muslims, Black   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,060 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Islam and the Black American: Looking toward the Third Resurrection . New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. McCloud, Aminah Beverly . African American Islam . New York: Routledge, 1995. Marsh, Clifton E. From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism to Islam, 1930–1980 . Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press, 1984. Turned, Richard B. Islam in the African-American Experience . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. — Maboula...

Icon

Icon   Reference library

Victor V. Bychkov and Oleg V. Bychkov

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,165 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and the ninth centuries was the strongest and most enduring. In Byzantium, the main contributions to the theory of the icon were made by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, John of Damascus, the church fathers of the Seventh Ecumenical Council (787), the patriarch Nikephoros, and Theodore of Stoudios. In medieval Rus, their ideas were eagerly received and interpreted (sometimes in quite opposite ways) by Iosif Volotsky, Maxim Grek, Zinovij Otensky, the hegumen Artemij, the participants of the church councils of 1551 (Stoglav) and 1554 , the deacon Ivan...

Malyan

Malyan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,744 words
Illustration(s):
3

...86–92. Blackman, M. James. “The Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Banesh Period Ceramics from Tal-e Malyan, Iran.” In Scientific Studies in Ancient Ceramics , edited by M. J. Hughes , pp. 7–20. British Museum Occasional Paper, 19. London, 1981. Blackman, M. James . “The Manufacture and Use of Burned Lime Plaster at Proto-Elamite Anshan (Iran).” In Early Pyrotechnology: The Evolution of the First Fire Using Industries , edited by Theodore A. Wertime and Steven F. Wertime , pp. 107–115. Washington, D.C., 1982. Blackman, M. James. “Provenance...

England

England   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
4,341 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Appellants were motivated as much by their dislike of peace in France – perceived as Richard's own policy – as by other aspects of his government. Richard's revenge was long delayed but extreme. In 1397 the acts of the Merciless Parliament were annulled, proceedings instituted in Parliament against the earls of Arundel and Warwick , who had been Appellants, and the duke of Gloucester murdered, in all probability at Richard's instigation. Richard II 's actions in the last two years of his reign amounted to a tyranny, in that he ruled to a...

Golf

Golf   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the 1896 U.S. Open at Shinnecock Hills Country Club in New York, where he caddied and learned golf from the Scottish course builder Willie Dunn . European professionals threatened to leave if Shippen competed, but United States Golf Association ( USGA ) President Theodore Havermeyer insisted the tournament would continue without them. Shippen shared the lead after the first round, but an eleven on the par-four thirteenth hole in the second and final round dropped him to a fifth-place finish. Shippen played in four more U.S. Opens, but USGA and ...

Watercolour

Watercolour   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,791 words
Illustration(s):
2

... watercolour, late 19th century–early 20th century (private collection); photo credit: Art Resource, NY; see Watercolour The first proper list of watercolour pigments was given in Miniatura or the Art of Limning ( c. 1630 ), written by Edward Norgate (1580s–1650) for Sir Théodore Turquet de Mayerne and later widely circulated. Norgate listed the varieties of white, yellow, red, green, blue, brown and black—24 in all—that could be bought in apothecaries’ shops for artists to grind themselves. These pigments were derived from natural materials and were to...

Espionage and Intelligence Agencies

Espionage and Intelligence Agencies   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,435 words
Illustration(s):
1

...penetrated the U.S. embassy in Moscow, probably through the U.S. military attaché Colonel Philip R. Faymonville; the United States government; and the top-secret Manhattan Project through the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg spy ring, Donald Maclean, and the scientists Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall. World War II and the Cold War. In the field of SIGINT, between World War I and World War II the United States broke enemy codes, deciphering both the German and the Japanese encryption systems. Almost in the same period, cryptanalysts of the Polish Cipher Bureau (Biuro...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...hypocrisy, and oppression. Myra Cohn Livingston , the editor of What a Wonderful Bird the Frog Are: An Assortment of Humorous Poetry and Verse ( 1973 ), chooses well- crafted and thoughtful comedic poems from many sources, including Alexander Pope , Theodore Roethke , Maxine Kumin , and Richard Wilbur . Many imaginative and challenging anthologies appeared, especially during the 1960s. One early anthology, An Inheritance of Poetry ( 1948 ), edited by Gladys L. Adshead and Annis Duff , includes admirable selections but too many that are remote...

logic

logic   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,744 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Gardner, Martin , Logic, Machines and Diagrams (New York, Toronto and London, 1958). Gödel, Kurt , ‘Russell's Mathematical Logic’, in Paul Arthur Schilpp (ed.), The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, The Library of Living Philosophers , vol. 5 (Evanston, 1944). Hailperin, Theodore , Boole's Logic and Probability (Amsterdam, 1976). Hamilton, William , ‘ Logic: In Reference of the Recent English Treatises on that Science ’, Edinburgh Review 66 (1833), pp. 194–238. van Heijenoort, Jean , From Frege to Gödel: A Source Book in Mathematical Logic,...

Pacific campaign

Pacific campaign (1941–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,211 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the main apparent victor in the Pacific campaign. Richard Overy / Hugh Bicheno Dower, J. , War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York, 1986). Iriye, A. , The Origins of the Second World War in the Pacific (London, 1987). Rhodes, R. , The Making of the Atomic Bomb (London, 1986). Thorne, C. , The Far Eastern War: States and Societies, 1941–1945 (London, 1986). Vat, D. van der , The Pacific Campaign: The US–Japanese Naval War, 1941–1945 (London, 1992). Werrell, K. E. , Blankets of Fire: US Bombers over Japan during WW II ...

Philippines Expedition

Philippines Expedition   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Shaw, Angel Velasco , and Luis H. Francia , eds. Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899–1999 . New York: New York University Press, 2002. A collection of essays that considers the war's impact on the Philippines. Welch, Richard E., Jr. Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899–1902 . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. Chronicles the responses of various sectors of the U.S. public to the war. Joseph...

Middleton, Thomas

Middleton, Thomas   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,809 words
Illustration(s):
1

...writing career by one of the associate editors of the Oxford editions of both Middleton and Shakespeare. Linwand, Theodore B. The City Staged: Jacobean Comedy, 1603–1613 . Madison, WI, 1986. Good on the urban contexts of Middleton's comedies. Ricks, Christopher . “The Moral and Poetic Structure of The Changeling .” Essays in Criticism 10 (1960): 290–306. Classic critical exposition of Middleton's greatest tragedy. Rowe, G. E. Thomas Middleton and the New Comedy Tradition . Lincoln, NE, 1979. Useful study of comic form and Middleton's...

Climate and Climate History

Climate and Climate History   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Studies 32.2–3 (1999), 261–279. O'Hara, Sarah , and Sarah E. Metcalfe . Reconstructing the Climate of Mexico from Historical Records . Holocene 5.4 (1995), 485–490. Pfister, Christian , Brázdil Rudolf , and Rüdiger Glaser , eds. Climatic Variability in Sixteenth Century Europe and Its Social Dimension . Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1999. Richards, John F. The Unending Frontier: Environmental History in the Early Modern World . Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2001. Rotberg, Robert I. , and Theodore K. Rabb , eds. Hunger and History: The Impact of Changing...

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