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Pervez Musharraf

(1943– ) Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army ...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
929 words
Illustration(s):
4

...once again. Later that year, a military coup brought General Pervez Musharraf to power. In 2001 Pakistan supported the US-led attack on Afghanistan, provoking a backlash by Islamists. Musharraf changed the constitution, increasing his powers. In 2003 India and Pakistan began to negotiate a peace settlement over Kashmir. In 2005 nearly 75,000 were killed in an earthquake. In 2006 Taliban and al-Qaeda forces operating from N Pakistan against Afghanistan became a major problem. In 2007 Musharraf briefly imposed emergency rule before resigning as army...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
848 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to similar tests by India. The military overthrew Sharif’s government in 1999 and placed him under house arrest: General Pervez Musharraf became Chief Executive, and then President in 2001 . His rule was endorsed by a referendum in 2002 . Musharraf suspended the constitution in 2007 but called for elections in 2008 ; Benazir Bhutto was assassinated while campaigning. After a delayed election, which his supporters lost, Musharraf was forced from office. In October 2008 , he was replaced as president by Asif Ali Zardari, Benazir Bhutto’s widower and...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Pervez Musharraf , who deposed him in a bloodless coup. Initially the international community condemned the coup, but following Musharraf ’s support for the US-led war in Afghanistan and the struggle against al-Qaeda this criticism subsided. Musharraf survived several assassination attempts and developed a hybrid form of military and quasi-democratic rule. In 2002 he held a referendum to have himself appointed as president for five years. By 2007 , Sharif and Bhutto had returned to Pakistan ahead of legislative elections. Musharraf ...

Indo-Pakistan Conflict

Indo-Pakistan Conflict   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of underground shelters. Tensions between India and Pakistan remained high, and a full-scale war seemed a distinct possibility following the attack by six terrorists on the Indian parliament in New Delhi on 13 December 2001 . India blamed Pakistan. The Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf immediately condemned the attack. Nonetheless, the Indian army went on high alert all along the Pakistani border, and the Pakistani army responded in a similar manner. India recalled its High Commissioner to Islamabad on 21 December and cut travel links between India and...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...multifaceted social, political, and economic problems faced by Pakistan. The Musharraf Era. On October 12, 1999, the Pakistan army under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf carried out its third bloodless coup in the country's then fifty-two-year history by arresting the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, and declaring a state of emergency. General Musharraf portrayed his regime as reformist and determined to deal with the political and economic problems faced by Pakistan. Musharraf, an admirer of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the founder of the secular Turkish...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,685 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The prime minister blamed the army chief Pervez Musharraf ( b. 1943 ) for the war—the war that Benzir Bhutto called “Pakistan's greatest blunder,” a sentiment that many Pakistani officials agreed with. The war was a military and a strategic defeat that saw universal condemnation of Pakistan and praise for India for refusing to escalate the conflict by crossing the line of control. It also led to a sharp increase in military spending in India, to the further detriment of Pakistan's competitive stance. Musharraf's Coup. The Pakistani army was acutely...

Taliban

Taliban   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,011 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Pakistan Army's XI Corps based in Peshawar, as well as command-and-control support. Hundreds of Pakistani military officers provided logistical, planning, and intelligence support to the Taliban. After 9/11, intense U.S. pressure was brought to bear on Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf , who publicly distanced himself from the Taliban. The Taliban lost its Pakistani financial, material, military, and intelligence support and were now seemingly abandoned. Resurgence of the Taliban. Since the defeat of the Taliban by the United States and its local allies in...

Pakistan, Secular Laws in

Pakistan, Secular Laws in   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,162 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with the Objectives Resolution as the Preamble. Although both Constitutions declared Pakistan to be an Islamic Republic, neither catered to an Islamic way of government in the conventional sense. Legal Opposition. More than 100 lawyers demonstrating against President General Pervez Musharraf in the city court district of Islamabad, November 2007. Photograph by Wally Santana. AP Images Through Article 2 of the 1973 Constitution, Islam had been declared the State Religion. Provisions relating to Islam were made fundamental under Part IX of the Constitution....

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,108 words
Illustration(s):
1

...initiated which involved resolving all outstanding issues including Kashmir. In 2005 , for the first time since 1947 , the de facto border (the Line of Control) was opened, permitting a limited bus service to operate for the inhabitants of the state. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf also offered an alternative to the plebiscite, even announcing that Pakistan would renounce its claim on Kashmir provided India would agree to a four-point plan giving the region autonomy or self-governance. However, there has been no change in the status of Jammu and...

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Ralph Carter and James M. Scott

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,423 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( 2002 :165) Constitutional battles between courts and leaders are not confined to the United States. After the Pakistani Supreme Court challenged the government of Pervez Musharraf over its treatment of human rights activists and terrorism suspects, Musharraf dismissed the court’s chief justice, Iftikhar Mohammed Chaudhry . Public opposition to the move pressed Musharraf to reinstate Chaudhry in 2007 , but his reappointment to the court was stymied by the collapse of the coalition government in 2008 . In Israel, both legal controls and...

Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Weapons   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,906 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of mass destruction as justification for the invasion of Iraq, Qaddafi abandoned and revealed his secret program in December 2003 . Subsequently Iran was found to have built centrifuge plants modeled on Kahn's. These revelations forced the Pakistani president General Pervez Musharraf to remove Kahn from his post and later to place him under house arrest; Kahn was not, however, made available for international investigators, so the extent of his proliferation activities has not been definitively established. Nevertheless, nuclear-capable F-16 fighter...

Constitutional Law

Constitutional Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
20,460 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Khan ( 1958–1969 ), Yahya Khan ( 1969–1971 ), Zia ul-Haq ( 1977–1988 ), and Pervez Musharraf ( 1999–2008 ). Many of the variations between the constitutions of 1956 , 1962 , and 1973 (still in force) and their many amendments had to do with the federal structure of the country and with the respective powers of the president (whose primacy is affirmed in the 1962 constitution and reaffirmed by the Eighth Amendment of Zia ul-haq in 1985 and again recently by Musharraf) and, on the other side, of the prime minister and the parliament (whose role was...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
12,269 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Hudud Ordinances, reinstate reserved seats for women in the provincial and national assemblies, or develop other substantive measures to transform Pakistani society in ways that could ensure women's rights in popular practices. Social Reform Efforts Today. The government of Pervez Musharraf , which came to power in Pakistan following a coup in October 1999 , incorporated women's empowerment as a substantive component of its policies to promote Pakistan's progress and alleviate poverty: it reinstated reserved seats for women in the 2001 elections, encouraged...

Law

Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
26,587 words
Illustration(s):
1

...unusual circumstances, it would be inequitable to oblige the first wife to continue to live with the polygamous husband. In 2005 , the Pakistani government submitted legislation to parliament in Islamabad to amend the country 's rape laws, a litmus test for President Pervez Musharraf and his ability to bring actual reforms within his “enlightened moderation” program. This proposal intended to amend the 1979 hudūd laws, passed by the government of General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, which required a woman to produce four witnesses or be potentially subject to...

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