View:

Overview

Perpendicular

Denoting the latest stage of English Gothic church architecture, prevalent from the late 14th to mid 16th centuries and characterized by broad arches, elaborate fan vaulting, and large ...

Balk

Balk   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
486 words
Illustration(s):
1

...walls, debris layers, pits, hard surfaces or floors, and various other artifacts. From Tel Miqne, field III, NE 11, east section, 1993. (Courtesy Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavation and Publication Project) Because lighting direction and angle play on the level and the plumb (or perpendicular) balk face, they are critical to the successful observation and accurate reading of a balk. Once it is drawn to scale and photographed under optimal lighting conditions, the balk face, or often an extended sequence of faces representing the side of a long trench or the...

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Iron II. Stratum II (tenth century bce ) contained a large, well-constructed, multiroomed building in field I that has been partially excavated ( see figure 1 ). The complex (at least 11 × 15 m) is oriented northeast-southwest, with two primary interior dividing walls perpendicular to each other. One interior wall carries a stone bench along its northern face. Both walls have well-hewn stones as door jambs. The complex has two building phases. The destruction debris found within the complex included a great deal of burned mud brick. In field II a series...

Hadar, Tel

Hadar, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
941 words
Illustration(s):
1

...leveled, and two large public buildings were constructed on two terraces. The first, a storehouse comprised of three long, narrow halls, was built parallel to the inner city wall on the upper terrace; the second, a tripartite pillared building with a unique granary, was built perpendicular to the wall, on the lower terrace. The storehouse had solid stone walls and beaten-earth floors. Portions of its halls were used for grinding flour and similar activities. A door led to the two wings of the second building. Some of the pillars in the building on the lower...

Ziggurat

Ziggurat   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
985 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; Larsa .] All these buildings have their corners oriented to the cardinal points and were generally located, together with a lower temple, within a courtyard with a separate forecourt. The shrine at the top was reached by means of staircases often with a triple stair—one perpendicular to the wall face and the other two running along the wall from the two corners—leading up to the first stage of the ziggurat and meeting at a gateway. Only at Ur is the second stage sufficiently preserved for it to be clear that only a single stair provided access to its top....

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ASOR Archives) At the center of the settlement a large, four-room house (16 × 12 m) was preserved up to three courses of stone with outer walls as much as 1.4 m thick. Three long, connecting rooms were separated by two rows of stone pillars. An enclosed room was situated perpendicular to them along the south wall. The floors of the side rooms were made out of stone slabs; the rest were of bedrock or beaten earth. The only entrance was at the northern end of the long western wall, and a small room was attached to the house at its north-west corner ( see ...

Qitmit, Ḥorvat

Qitmit, Ḥorvat   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,103 words
Illustration(s):
2

...enclosed by a stone wall (hereafter referred to as the altar enclosure). The structure is rectangular and measures 10.5 × 5 m, with each room opening to the south for its entire width. Podiumlike wall segments, whose upper courses consist of large, flat stones, were erected perpendicular to the entrances in all three rooms. It is fairly clear, however, that these podiumlike elements served no structural function. Rather, they should be seen as elements of the room's furniture. They may have served as a table on which rituals were performed in the room's...

Writing Materials

Writing Materials   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

....] The chief, if not completely reliable, source for the preparation of the writing material is Pliny the Elder's Natural History (13.74–82). Fresh strips of pith were laid side by side on a flat surface, with their edges touching; more strips were laid on top of them, perpendicularly, again with their edges touching. They were then pressed together (and perhaps pounded with a mallet), and the plants' sap bonded them into a very smooth, white, flexible sheet that could be inscribed on both sides. Usually, the sheets were glued into rolls of twenty, with...

Anchors

Anchors   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,249 words
Illustration(s):
3

...about anchor arm construction with the discovery of a fragmentary anchor on the Chrétienne “C” wreck (Joncheray, 1975 ). Arms were bound fastened to anchor shanks with Z-shaped hook joints that were, in turn, secured by mortise-and-tenon joints (figure 3.5). Pegs placed perpendicularly through tenons in anchor arms locked them in position. When arm/shank joints loosened with wear, reinforcement collars (figure 3.4) poured onto anchors held the anchor arms in position (Haldane, 1986 ). Pliny records cork floats on lines used to mark an anchor's location on...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...deep-relief terracotta plaques. The figures are naked but adorned with a wig or headcover and a disk (drum) is pressed against the chest with both hands (Rashid, 1984 , ills. 91–95); and as bell-shaped figures dressed in a long gown, beating the drum, which is in a position perpendicular to the body (Meyers, 1987 ). Preserved only in Israel/Palestine, there are more than forty items of the first type and some fifteen of the second extant. Mixed types appear on Cyprus and in Syria: pillar figurines with a disk pressed against the chest and figurines on votive...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,809 words
Illustration(s):
7

...sides of the summit. Eastern insulae. As early as the second century ce , the original settlement on the summit had spread to the east, on the adjacent plateau. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to these main thoroughfares created spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae, of buildings. The cardo (13.7 m wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original Roman pavers, with deep wheel ruts testifying to centuries of wagon...

Furniture and Furnishings

Furniture and Furnishings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
10,489 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Malku's wife (Malku was an important Palmyrene) sits on a cathedra . From the end of the second century ce , a Palmyran relief shows the goddess Leto seated on a similar basket chair. The cathedra was also used as a litter for the wealthy. Two types of stools, one with perpendicular legs and a second with folding legs, are known from the classical Greek world and continued to be used commonly in the Roman period. One of the few existing examples of a Roman-period stool is represented by a wooden leg excavated at Rifeh, Egypt. A cross-legged stool with a...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and beginning of the fourth centuries bce , was also enclosed by a city wall. One section, about 12 m long and 2.5 m wide, discovered on the east side of the city, was built of well-dressed local sandstone. The stones were shaped like bricks lying on their sides and were set perpendicular to the wall, like headers. At set intervals they were strengthened by piers of stretchers. At Tell el-Ḥesi, the remains of a wall that enclosed both the early and the later phases of the city were found. According to Bliss, its excavator, the north sides of the buildings of...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the use there of wooden posts. [See Beidha .] Wood has also been utilized in more complex structures. In orthogonal (right-angled) units, beams were used for roofing. The main beams were placed at intervals across the room and thinner branches were densely laid over and perpendicular to the beams. The top layer was made of mud or lime mortar. In many cases segments of the mortar, bearing the imprints of branches, are observable in the destruction deposits. Tree trunks were commonly used as columns to support the roof beams of large halls. Stone bases,...

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

Karen B. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Horbury and Noy, 1992 , no. 14, p. 21). In Leontopolis (Tell-el-Yehudieh) the local necropolis contained tombs marked with menorahs and biblical names. Steps facilitated access to subterranean passageways leading to a square central chamber where loculus tombs were cut perpendicularly into the rock. Bricks were placed under the heads of many of the dead. Inscribed stelae crowned with pediments were also discovered inside the complex. Several local inscriptions, as well as those from Demerdash, included metrical elegiac poems conventional throughout the...

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...possesses good acoustic characteristics and could be the scene of Jesus’s preaching from the boat ( Mark 3:9 ). Farther to the northeast, Y. Stepansky has documented remains of an unusual dry stone structure, with a length of about 1,968.5 ft (600 m), from which extend, perpendicular to the coast, 44 irregular arms, 9.8 ft (3 m) distant from one another. These are interpretable as anchorages or, more likely, as the vivaria (fishponds or fish-traps) mentioned in the rabbinical literature under the name bibarim ( m. Beṣah 3:1). In the Byzantine and...

Gezer

Gezer   Reference library

Steven M. Ortiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,050 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the hills and coast. During the Iron Age the typical house at Gezer was rectangular and consisted of four rooms. A central room with tabuns (ovens) was flanked by two parallel rooms on either side. These three rows of rooms were separated by pillars. There was a back room perpendicular to these three rows of rooms. This broad backroom functioned as a storage room. Such a house would have had a second story. To the northwest there is an eighth-century b.c.e. domestic quarter with several typical Iron-Age four-room houses built next to each other and a...

Death and Burial, Hellenistic and Roman Period, Palestine

Death and Burial, Hellenistic and Roman Period, Palestine   Reference library

Byron R. McCane

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,199 words
Illustration(s):
2

... arcosolia ), a wide, shallow, arch-shaped niche carved along the wall of the burial chamber, in which a body could be laid parallel to the wall, and (2) the loculus (pl. loculi ), a long, narrow slot carved deep into the wall of the tomb, in which a body could be laid perpendicular to the wall of the tomb. These niches, which are widely distributed around the Mediterranean world during the Hellenistic period, make their first appearance in Palestine during the Hellenistic period at Maresha, in the “painted tombs” discovered by Peters and Thiersch. They...

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...served the city council as a bouleuterion (council meeting hall). At the southern side of the city a hippodrome was built at the second century c.e. , measuring 886 ft (270 m) in length and 230 ft (70 m) in width (Pl. 1:24). The seats were erected over ramps set within perpendicular walls and substructure vaults. During the fourth century it was partly dismantled, while its western part was turned into an amphitheater, 394 ft (120 m) long and 220 ft (67 m) wide. The tiers were supported by vaults, and the arena had a 10 ft (3 m) high wall adorned by a...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The settlement on the summit spread to the adjacent plateau on the east at some point in the Early Roman period, in the late first or early second century c.e. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to the main thoroughfares created a spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae , of buildings. The cardo (44.9 ft [13.7 m] wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original pavers, probably dating to the first half of the second...

View: