## Perpendicular Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

... Third and latest of the English Gothic architectural styles, also known as Third Pointed or Rectilinear , it followed from the previous Decorated or Second-Pointed style. Perp. first emerged in designs of c. 1332 for the chapter-house and cloisters of old St Paul’s Cathedral, London (destroyed), by William de Ramsey , and was further developed at Gloucester Cathedral, where the chancel ( c. 1337–57) displays many of its attributes. An English style, it has no Continental, Irish, or Scottish equivalent, and survived for more than three...

## perpendicular distance Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

... distance The distance from a point to a line or plane measured along the line perpendicular to the line or plane which passes through the given point. It will be the shortest distance between the point and any given point on the line or...

## Perpendicular style Reference library

### The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

...Peterborough Cathedral. Perpendicular grew from the same roots as the Decorated style , with which it shared the love of the minuscule, with tight moulded bases, bundles of diminutive mouldings, and complex pattern-making. Unlike the Decorated style, Perpendicular required uniformity, the predominant use of straight lines and avoidance of obvious curves, especially the ogee. Some Perpendicular characteristics are adumbrated in Decorated buildings: the Lady Chapel ( 1321–49 ) at Ely Cathedral, for example, has a proto-Perpendicular grid system inherent in...

## 10 Paper Reference library

### The Oxford Companion to the Book

...sheet needs to be identified; the orientation of chain lines in bound, laid paper helps determine this ( see format ). In a sheet folded in half, the chain lines run parallel to the fold and book spine, producing a *folio . A second fold, perpendicular to the first, will produce chain lines running perpendicular to the spine, and thus a *quarto . A third fold restores the original orientation, producing an *octavo , and so on. Once a single sheet has been identified, any watermark and countermark can be noted, and their relative positions in the sheet...

## normal vector Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.)

...vector A vector that is perpendicular to a given surface at a given point on that surface. Normal vector ...

## Cartesian coordinates Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering

...coordinates A reference system used to define a point on a plane, in relation to an origin and two perpendicular axes (the x-axis and y-axis). An additional axis (the z-axis) can be introduced to define a point in...

## velocity gradient Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

...velocity gradient The deformation of a fluid under the influence of a shearing force presented as the change in velocity of the fluid perpendicular to the flow. It is also known as the shear rate . ...

## shear rate Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

...shear rate (Symbol ) The deformation of a fluid under the influence of an applied shear force presented as the change in velocity of the fluid perpendicular to flow: It is also known as the velocity gradient . The SI unit is s −1 . ...

## angle of incidence Quick reference

### The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

...of incidence For colliding bodies, the angle formed by the direction in which a body is travelling before impact with a surface, and the line perpendicular to that surface at the point of impact. Compare angle of reflection . angle of...

## hyperbolic cylinder Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...cylinder A cylinder in which the fixed curve is a hyperbola and the fixed line to which the generators are parallel is perpendicular to the plane of the hyperbola. It is a quadric , and in a suitable coordinate system has equation...

## kite Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...A quadrilateral that has two adjacent sides of equal length and the other two sides of equal length. If the kite ABCD has AB = AD and CB = CD , the diagonals AC and BD are perpendicular, and AC bisects BD...

## circumcentre Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...The circumcentre of a triangle is the centre of the circumcircle of the triangle. It is the point O , shown in the figure, at which the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the triangle are...

## parabolic cylinder Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...cylinder A cylinder in which the fixed curve is a parabola and the fixed line to which the generators are parallel is perpendicular to the plane of the parabola. It is a quadric , and in a suitable coordinate system has equation...

## elliptic cylinder Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...cylinder A cylinder in which the fixed curve is an ellipse and the fixed line to which the generators are parallel is perpendicular to the plane of the ellipse. It is a quadric , and in a suitable coordinate system has...

## bellerophontiform Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

... Applied to the shape of gastropod ( Gastropoda ) shells which resemble those of the genus Bellerophon . The coiling is isotrophic (i.e. two faces of the shell are symmetrical in respect of a median plane perpendicular to the axis)....

## parabola Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

...parabola A conic with eccentricity e =1. It is the locus of a point that moves so that its distance from the focus is equal to its perpendicular distance from the directrix . A chord through the focus, perpendicular to the axis, is called the latus rectum . For a parabola with its vertex at the origin, lying symmetrically about the x -axis, the equation is y 2 =4 ax , where a is the distance from the vertex to the focus. The directrix is the line x =− a , and the latus rectum is 4 a . Parabola. ...

## dip Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

... 1. The angle of inclination of a planar feature measured from a horizontal datum . The true dip is always measured in a vertical plane perpendicular to the strike of the plane of either bedding or cleavage . The angle of dip measured in any plane not perpendicular to the strike is an apparent dip and will always be less than the true dip. 2. (magnetic) The inclination of the Earth's magnetic field from the horizontal. Positive dips are downwards, negative are upwards from the horizontal plane....

## Magnus effect Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

...Magnus effect The phenomenon whereby a lift force arises on a spinning object in a transverse viscous fluid flow. The force acts in a direction perpendicular to the spin axis and that of the flow. In the diagram, the fluid pressure is higher on the surface marked H than on the surface marked L. Magnus...

## Poisson's ratio Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

...ratio ( Y ) The ratio of latitudinal to longitudinal strain , which describes the extent to which a material is distorted in a direction perpendicular to an applied stress : where Y is Poisson's ratio, e the strain, and σ1 is the maximum principal stress . It is named after Simeon Poisson ( 1781–1840...

## lever Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

...lever A simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum. The mechanical advantage or force ratio of a lever (the ratio of load to effort) is equal to the ratio of the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the effort from the fulcrum to the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the load from the fulcrum. In a first-order lever the fulcrum comes between load and effort. In a second-order lever the load comes between the fulcrum and the effort. In a third-order lever the effort comes between the fulcrum and the load. Levers...