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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Ancient Navies

Ancient Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,774 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of reserve ships; that is, there were not enough full oar crews for all the ships. After the debacle of Salamis in 480 , the navy became much smaller—up to the end of the Peloponnesian war ( 431–404 ) it was denied its footing in the Aegean by the navy of the Athenian alliance (the Delian League), and this clearly reduced its potential by more than half. Even after the Delian League was dissolved in 404 , the Persian navy never regained its old strength; four hundred is the largest figure referred to. According to Herodotus and Strabo, the Persian navy...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Asia Minor, who were now intent on driving the Persians out of their own territory. In 478/477 b.c.e. an alliance was formed for this purpose, known as the Delian League, which soon became, effectively, an Athenian empire. The First Peloponnesian War (c. 460–446 b.c.e. ) The growth in Athenian power led, around 460 b.c.e. , to the outbreak of a war (sometimes known as the First Peloponnesian War) between Athens and the city of Corinth , itself a naval power backed by the Spartans. In the course of the war Athens subjugated the neighboring island of...

Technology and Weapons

Technology and Weapons   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
10,000 words
Illustration(s):
1

...interconnected siege towers, unchallenged by any Byzantine naval force. [ See also Ancient Navies ; Medieval Navies ; Mediterranean Sea ; Oars and Oarmaking ; Warships, subentries on Ancient Warships and Medieval Warships ; and Wars, Maritime, subentries on Peloponnesian War and Crusades .] Casson, Lionel . Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World . 2d ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986. This is the best study of ancient Mediterranean ships up to the fifth century c.e. It is fully referenced and illustrated....

Warships

Warships   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,668 words
Illustration(s):
5

... made the trireme very popular. City-states that could afford to do so built trireme fleets. Athens, the leading city-state in Greece and head of a defense league against the Persians, had a fleet of more than two hundred triremes. The oarsmen were citizens and not primarily slaves. The Athenians fought many sea battles, first against the Persians, later against the city-states of the Peloponnesian League. In a naval engagement the two sides usually faced one another in line abreast. When combat started they avoided ramming prow to prow and tried to hit the...

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