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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period   Reference library

Mary Joan Winn Leith

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...on Delian League tribute lists for 454 is the coastal city of Dor just south of the Carmel range, then the Greeks had gained a strategic foothold on Palestinian soil. The participation of the Greeks in the Egyptian revolt of 460 has been described as the most serious challenge to imperial control the Persians faced in the fifth century. Megabyzus, satrap of Abar Nahara, led Artaxerxes I's forces to eventual victory in Egypt. With substantial help from Phoenician ships the Persian navy obliterated the fleet of the Delian League led by Athens...

Corinth

Corinth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,183 words
Illustration(s):
1

...participated in the Hellenic League formed to meet the threat of Persian invasion in the 480s, contributing forty ships to the major naval engagements at Thermopylae and Salamis, the second-largest contingent after that of Athens, and five thousand troops to the Spartan-led army at Plataea. Corinth and the other Peloponnesian League states withdrew from the Hellenic League as the Persian threat receded, leaving Athens a clear field to pursue the war into Persian territory and organize the liberated Greek poleis into the Delian League. By the 460s, Corinth began...

Peloponnesus

Peloponnesus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...prospered through its ability to exploit both eastern and western trade routes. For most of the Archaic and Classical periods the Peloponnesus was united by the Spartan alliance known as the Peloponnesian League. After the league dissolved as a consequence of the Battle of Leuctra in 371 bce , the Peloponnesus was controlled by the Macedonians, then the Achaean League, and finally the Romans ( 146 bce ). The most famous site in the Peloponnesus was Olympia; the Olympic games continued to attract visitors until they were abolished in 393 ce by the emperor...

Peloponnesian Wars

Peloponnesian Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,396 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Thucydides referred to the final phase of this war, circa 412–404 , as the “Ionian War” (Thucydides 8.11.3), and later writers also called it the “Decelean” (Strabo 3.396). The so-called first Peloponnesian War, circa 461–446 , is a modern construct systematizing a multifaceted conflict between Athens and its growing empire and Sparta and its Peloponnesian League. Boeotia and the Megarid were the primary battlegrounds, Athens and Corinth the chief antagonists. In the end Athens lost its influence in Boeotia but won control of the Megarid, though at the...

Sparta

Sparta   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,331 words
Illustration(s):
1

...solidity, so much so that modern historians use the slightly misleading term “Peloponnesian League” to describe it. The allies were always formally subordinate to Sparta individually, but collectively at a specially summoned delegate congress in Sparta they had the right to veto as well as to approve any proposal put to them by the Spartans. It was in relation at first to Athens and then, after Athens’ major defeat in the Peloponnesian War ( 431 to 404 ), to Thebes that the league played out its vital role as the chosen instrument of Sparta's foreign policy....

Delian League

Delian League   Reference library

Russell Meiggs and Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,684 words
Illustration(s):
1

...League , modern name for the alliance formed 478 /7 bc against the Persians (also known as the ‘Athenian empire’). In 478 the Greeks, led by the Spartan Pausanias , campaigned in Cyprus and secured Byzantium ; but Pausanias abused his power and was recalled to Sparta. At the request of the allies, who pleaded Pausanias’ behaviour and ‘Ionian kinship’ (Thuc. 1. 95. 1), Athens accepted leadership. The Peloponnesians acquiesced (some evidence suggests reluctance), and a new alliance was formed with its headquarters on the sacred island of Delos —a...

Polybius

Polybius (c.200–c.118bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bce ), Greek politician and historian . Polybius was born in Megalopolis, Arcadia, into one of the leading Greek political families of the day. He seemed destined to follow in the footsteps of his father, Lycortas, who had led the confederation of Peloponnesian states known as the Achaean League, but in 168 Polybius found himself among the thousand Achaean leaders deported to Italy in the wake of Rome's victory at Pydna over Perseus, king of Macedon (in the Third Macedonian War). Allowed to settle in Rome, he moved at ease among the rich and...

Interstate Relations

Interstate Relations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,267 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the fifth-century dispute between Corcyra and Corinth (Thucydides, 1.24–55). Leagues under hegemons had the potential of overcoming parochial interests of individual members and cooperating, but they regularly succumbed to the imperialist impulses of leading states. The most famous examples are the fifth-century Spartan-led Peloponnesian League and the so-called Delian League under Athenian control. The Second Athenian Confederation (established in 379/378 bce ) and the League of Corinth under Philip II (after 338 bce ) were more temperate than their...

Greece, prehistory and history of

Greece, prehistory and history of   Reference library

Paul Halstead, Oliver T. P. K. Dickinson, Simon Hornblower, and Antony J. S. Spawforth

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,602 words
Illustration(s):
1

...purpose of the Delian League; but after the Eurymedon victory of 466 a preliminary ‘peace of Callia’ may have been made. A great Athenian expedition against Persia in Egypt in the 450s failed utterly, and in 450 the main Callias peace was made, though this is controversial. Thereafter, until 413 , Athens and Persia were in a state of uneasy peace. The Peloponnesian War The First Peloponnesian War ended with the Thirty Years Peace of 446 , and this instrument regulated Athenian–Spartan relations until the great Peloponnesian War of 431–404 . The...

Athens

Athens   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
10,543 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and an Athenian, Aristides, was entrusted with the initial assessment of tribute. So although modern historians know the alliance by the innocuous title Delian League, the seeds for its transformation into the Athenian Empire had been planted at the time of its creation. That transformation, bracketed by the fifty-year period ( pentēkontaeteia ), 478–431 , between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War, is scantily documented by Thucydides in an excursus, by a few inscriptions, and by a scattering of other, mostly late notices. Armed opposition to the...

finance, Greek and Hellenistic

finance, Greek and Hellenistic   Reference library

Paul C. Millett

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,308 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it was proposed that a windfall gain of 100 talents from the silver mines at Laurium be parcelled out among the citizen body ( Ath. pol. 22. 7). Shortly after, Athenian finances were transformed by the acquisition of a tribute-paying empire ( see delian league ). Figures from the eve of the Peloponnesian War give a crude impression of scale: from a total annual revenue (internal and external) of approximately 1,000 talents (Xen. An. 7. 1. 27), some 600 talents derived from the empire (Thuc. 2. 13). This made possible the maintenance of a massive navy, an...

Thucydides

Thucydides (c.460–400bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,406 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( c.460–400 bce ), historian of the Peloponnesian War ( 431–404 bce ) between Athens with its subject-cities and the league of cities in the Peloponnesus led by Sparta. The first historian to write about his own times, Thucydides in antiquity was a paradigm for accuracy, and today he is a paradigm for vivid narrative, as well as for unsentimental “realist” political analysis. He documents the height of Athenian greatness under Pericles—whose idealistic funeral oration for the war dead (2.34–2.47) was a model for Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
14,677 words
Illustration(s):
5

...as the Delian League (because of the location of its treasury on the island of Delos). Where Sparta had once enjoyed indisputable military superiority and hence political clout because of the superiority of its hoplite soldiers (infantrymen), now that role was divided between Sparta and Athens. Sparta's long-standing Peloponnesian League, largely a land empire, was now balanced by the Athenians’ naval league. What had begun as a mutually beneficial arrangement began to sour as the Athenians met attempts at secession from their league with armed force, but...

polis

polis   Reference library

Oswyn Murray

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,500 words
Illustration(s):
1

... urbanism . Oswyn Murray polis Ruins of an Athenian farmhouse near modern Vari (late 5th cent. bc ). Most poleis were agricultural communities, and at Athens the majority of citizens lived in the Attic countryside until forced to take shelter behind the city-walls in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 bc ). Antony Spawforth ...

Delphi

Delphi   Reference library

Catherine A. Morgan, Simon Hornblower, and Antony J. S. Spawforth

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,098 words
Illustration(s):
1

...so, because of its centrality and fame) was a focus for interstate competition as well as for contests between individuals. The four Sacred Wars are therefore only the moments when such competition flared up into overt military clashes. But even ‘conventional’ wars like the Peloponnesian Wars had a religious aspect: Sparta ’s foundation of Heraclea Trachinia (in central Greece) during the Archidamian War (431–421) was arguably an attempt to increase Sparta’s influence in the amphictiony. And at all times in Greek history, control of Thessaly was desirable...

Greece

Greece   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,258 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Athens and destroyed the Athenian empire in the Peloponnesian War . In the 4th century Thebes toppled Sparta, but Greece as a whole was soon forced to bow before an outside conqueror— Philip II of Macedonia. After the death of his son, Alexander III (the Great), the Greek world was dominated by the Hellenistic kingdoms with the cities of Greece playing comparatively minor parts in the power struggle. Then Rome intervened in the Macedonian wars , until the year 146 bc saw the defeat of the Achaean League , the sacking of Corinth, and the final...

Greece, classical

Greece, classical   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,504 words
Illustration(s):
1

...outside, in the period of the greatest glory of classical Greece. The city states of Greece, though united against the Persians, were now at loggerheads, their political systems—either democratic or oligarchic—bending under the increasing strain of what became known as the Peloponnesian War ( 431–404 bc ). Athens was ultimately defeated, and the classical style evolved there—that reached perfection with the Parthenon—had reached the end of its journey. Of its few further accomplishments, one stands out for its eventual progeny. This is the ruined circular...

Ancient Navies

Ancient Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,774 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of reserve ships; that is, there were not enough full oar crews for all the ships. After the debacle of Salamis in 480 , the navy became much smaller—up to the end of the Peloponnesian war ( 431–404 ) it was denied its footing in the Aegean by the navy of the Athenian alliance (the Delian League), and this clearly reduced its potential by more than half. Even after the Delian League was dissolved in 404 , the Persian navy never regained its old strength; four hundred is the largest figure referred to. According to Herodotus and Strabo, the Persian navy...

Warfare

Warfare   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,309 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Athenian domination of nearly all the lands bordering on the Aegean Sea and to the inevitable hegemonic clash with Greece's preeminent military power, Sparta. The Peloponnesian War and After. Between 431 and 404 bce , Athens and Sparta, each at the head of an alliance of states, waged a terrible and destructive war throughout Greece, Asia Minor, and even Sicily. During this the Peloponnesian War, the dominance of the hoplite in Greek warfare began to fade, although it did not disappear. This occurred not because of any particular deficiency of the...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Asia Minor, who were now intent on driving the Persians out of their own territory. In 478/477 b.c.e. an alliance was formed for this purpose, known as the Delian League, which soon became, effectively, an Athenian empire. The First Peloponnesian War (c. 460–446 b.c.e. ) The growth in Athenian power led, around 460 b.c.e. , to the outbreak of a war (sometimes known as the First Peloponnesian War) between Athens and the city of Corinth , itself a naval power backed by the Spartans. In the course of the war Athens subjugated the neighboring island of...

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