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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Ethnicity

Ethnicity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Peninsula, claims to ethnic or tribal identity—the two notions are almost indistinguishable in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and the Gulf States—are usually framed in genealogical terms as descending from one of two eponymous ancestors. “Northern” Arabs claim descent from ʿAdnān; “southern” Arabs, including those who speak Semitic languages other than Arabic, claim Qaḥṭān as their ancestor. The possibility for some groups of claiming either ʿAdnān or Qaḥṭān as eponymous ancestors allows for flexibility in making descent claims, although...

Jordan

Jordan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...end of World War I, this area had been part of greater Syria under Ottoman rule. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 the Allied powers divided the Middle East into spheres of influence, with Transjordan and Palestine under British mandate and trusteeship. In 1946 Transjordan achieved independence to become the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, with Prince Abdullah ibn al-Hussein its first monarch ( r. 1921–1951 ). The Hashemite family hails from the Hejaz in Arabia and claims legitimacy to rule based in part on its descent from the Prophet...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,484 words
Illustration(s):
1

...are Sunnī. In addition, there are various Shīʿī groups, including Ismāʿ īlīs and Twelvers. It is estimated that Sunnīs are in the majority (about 70 percent), followed by Ismāʿīlīs (20 percent), with Twelvers and other groups such as the Druze and Ahmadīs (Qādiānīs) accounting for the balance. The Muslim population of Canada is ethnically diverse as well. Some 90 percent claim a single ethnic origin. Of these nearly 80 percent are of Asian and North African descent, including Indo-Pakistanis (numerically the most dominant), followed next by West Asian and...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Islam in Germany). Graz: Verlag Styria, 1981. Written for a broad public, without references and unreliable, but still the only book claiming to describe the history of Islam in Germany. Denffer, Ahmad von , ed. Islam hier und heute (Islam Here and Now). Cologne: Verlag Islamische Bibliothek Rassoul, 1981. Hanisch, Ludmila . Die Nachfolger der Exegeten: Deutschsprachige Erforschung des Vorderen Orients in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts (The Successors of the Exegetes: German-Speaking Research on the Near East in the First Half of the Twentieth...

Minorities

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,101 words
Illustration(s):
5

... (vicegerents) with honor and dignity in their human person and with equal claims to the rubūbīyah (sustainership) of God. They are entitled to the hidāyah (guidance) from God and, like all children of Adam, are exalted with the power of choice (the ability to say no), thereby attaining a status higher than that of the angels. Murad Hoffman refers to the collection of these rules and injunctions as the Qurʿānic Minority Statute ( Islam , p. 168). If Muslims are living as part of non-Muslim communities, their treatment by the non-Muslim majority is...

Iran

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,909 words
Illustration(s):
4

...well as to the monarchs’ domestic policies and autocracy. Clergy power also derived from certain doctrinal changes in Shīʿī Islam , as well as ʿulamāʿ reactions to historical events. As early as the medieval period, some clerics, such as al-Muhaqqiq al-Hillī ( d. 1325 ), had claimed that the ʿulamā collectively exercised wala ʿ al-imāmah (guardianship) over the imamate of the Hidden Imam. The latter had vanished in 873/74 , but believers expected his apocalyptic return one day. Meanwhile, debates continued over what believers should do during the period...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,108 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mongol, Turkish, and Afghan. According to the pre-independence 1941 census, the total population was 4,021,616; of these 77 percent were Muslims, 20 percent were Hindus, and 3 percent were Sikhs and other minorities. According to the 1981 Indian census, by which time the state had been divided on the ground between India and Pakistan, the total population of the Indian-administered part of the state was 5,987,389; 64.2 percent of whom were Muslims, 32.25 percent Hindus, 2.23 percent Sikhs, and the remainder Buddhists, Christians, and Jains. By ...

Arabic Literature

Arabic Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,985 words
Illustration(s):
2

...He penned an autobiography, al-Ayyām ( The Days ), that remains one of the most beloved works of twentieth-century literature; it is also a landmark in Arabic letters. The saga it recounts forms part of its appeal: a blind Egyptian boy conquers social and educational barriers to become a professor at the modern university in Cairo. Along the way, he becomes part of the student delegation to France and returns to his native Egypt with a French doctorate and a French wife. His visual handicap only accentuates the drama of this text and the cultural differences...

Ḥamās

Ḥamās   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,263 words
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1

...the liberation of Palestine a fundamentally religious question. Under the leadership of the physician Dr. Fathī Shiqāqī ( 1951–1995 ), various small groups made jihād against Israel, including initiating armed struggle, the central religious duty. In doing so, the activists claimed to be acting on the authority of Sayyid Quṭb , the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader executed in 1966 and the inspiration of the Egyptian Islamic Jihād and the Islamic revolution in Iran. In 1986 and 1987 , Jihād cells engaged in a series of anti-Israeli guerrilla...

Ḥizbullāh

Ḥizbullāh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,190 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were also in hot pursuit of the PKK. For this reason, much of the general public had come to regard KH as a quasi-official terrorist, or counterterrorist, organization. However, the truth behind these violent clashes is that the PKK claimed to be the only true spokesman of Kurdish nationalism in Turkey, and KH viewed this claim as a threat to its own identity that had to be crushed. Velioğlu foresaw Hizbullāh developing through three distinct stages:  1. Propaganda ( tebliğ) : an educational period of raising religio-political consciousness. KH members in...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...on a communal partitioning of India. The popular acceptance of the idea of Pakistan was made possible only by the Muslim League's success in politicizing the religious sentiments of Indian Muslims and in claiming that the struggle for Pakistan was the struggle for the preservation and glory of Islam. Some proponents of the Pakistan movement even claimed that it was a continuation of the earlier Islamic revivalist movements in India of Shāh Walī Allāh al-Dihlawī ( d. 1762 ) and Sayyid Ahmad Barelwī ( d. 1831 ). This revivalist impulse was also intertwined...

Education

Education   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
19,936 words
Illustration(s):
1

...56.9 71.9 - - - - Algeria 1879 11 58.7 35.7 47.1 39.9 20.4 30.1 94.6 97.8 94.6 97.8 Azerbaijan 1919 24 - - - 1.8 0.5 1.2 89.1 85.2 89.1 85.2 Bahrain 1968 2 25.4 13.2 17.9 16.4 11.4 13.5 99 97.1 99 97.1 Bangladesh 1921 9 76.3 55.7 65.8 - - - 89.1 - 89.1 - Bosnia-Herzegovina - 2 - - - 5.6 1 3.3 - - - - Egypt 970/1919 18 66.4 39.6 52.9 - - - 91.4 96.2 91.4 96.2 Ghana 1961 5 52.8 29.9 41.5 50.2 33.6 42.1 56.8 65.3 56.8 65.3 India 1857 237 64.1 38.1 50.7 52.2 26.6 39 88.8 - 88.8 - Indonesia 1949 1051 27.5 13.3 20.5 13.2 6 9.6 98.5 97.2 98.5 97.2 Iran 1934 52 46 27.8...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,257 words
Illustration(s):
1

...report was translated into Turkish. The Persian diplomat Mīrzā Malkom Khān ( 1833–1908 ), who was educated in Paris, had lived in Turkey, and later became Persian ambassador to Great Britain, wrote extensively on European concepts of government, the rule of law, and liberty, claiming that these could be reconciled with Islam. In the Ottoman realm, the literary figure Namık Kemal ( 1840–1888 ) was prominent in disseminating ideas of rights and freedoms and the notion of their compatibility with Islam. Constitutionalism and Rights. In the nineteenth century,...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
46,709 words
Illustration(s):
19

...mentioned above, while an important part of the history of Islam in the United States, are heterodox groups that do not represent an accurate understanding of the Muslim faith. There is a broad range of Islamic theology, ideologies, practices, and religious understandings embraced by African-American Muslims. Many Muslims of African descent in the United States have begun to call themselves Sunnī Muslims, partly to distinguish themselves from the Nation of Islam (whose membership has dwindled to as few as 20,000 members) and its leader, Minister Louis...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,302 words
Illustration(s):
2

...its own socioeconomic program. One of the reformers defined a secular government as “one which transfers the leadership in religious affairs from the ignorant to the enlightened,” and the Kemalist daily Hakimiyet-i Milliye (December 30, 1925) editorialized, “We can sincerely claim that our Revolution has more of a religious than an irreligious character as it has saved consciences from harmful tyranny and domination.… To think that a nation can live without any religion is nothing less than denying humanity, sociology, and history.” Islam as an Instrument...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
12,269 words
Illustration(s):
3

...given in marriage either in exchange for other women or for wrongdoings on the part of men of their family or tribe. While the federal government of Pakistan has articulated its development priorities within a global framework (skills training, poverty alleviation strategies, improvement of the educational infrastructure, and promotion of the empowerment of women), it cannot leave behind the patois of Islam, as this would provide its Islamist opposition with the opportunity to claim they are the only viable Islamic alternative on the political landscape....

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
20,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

...As late as the early twenty-first century, this dichotomous relationship existed in South Asian Islam with the tacit approval of the ʿulamāʿ , pir s, and members of the social elite, all of whom vied with each other in claiming foreign ancestry—often meaning an Arab, Persian, Central Asian, or Afghan origin—to bolster their respective claims of superiority over the local converts, with whom they preferred not to have any meaningful contact. Even the urban-based ʿulamāʿ never concerned themselves with the well-being of this large body of local Muslims, who...

Women and Islam

Women and Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by the legal schools. Thus, a number of nineteenth- and twentieth-century political leaders, government bureaucrats, intellectuals, leaders of women's movements, and a minority of ʿulamāʿ (religious scholars), believe that the Qurʿān itself does not support later categorical claims that justify women's inequality in Islam. Qurʿānic verses do assign women's testimony half the value of men's; permit men to unilaterally divorce their wives; deny women custody rights over their children after they reach a certain age; permit polygyny; and favor men over women...

Martyrdom

Martyrdom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,038 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ d. 1979 ], p. 68). The theme of martyrdom is also very important in Sufism. The Islamic world is adorned with thousands of shrines (sg., mashhad ) to pious Muslims who have been regarded as martyrs (Björkman, Patton, and Arnold), though not all places known as mashhad claim to hold the remains of a bona fide martyr. (In Turkish, for example, meshed is a word for “cemetery” in general.) These tombs are the objects of special veneration and pilgrimage, the practice of which is traced to the Prophet himself, who is said to have visited the graves of...

Muslim Brotherhood

Muslim Brotherhood   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
15,934 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and public rights. Al-Turābī advocated a gradual non-violent approach based on education and opposed the implementation of the ḥudūd (punishments) at this stage, claiming that they should only be applied in an ideal Muslim society. The fact that the NIF later supported the ḥudūd , when imposed in September 1983 by Nimeiri, was justified on the ground that the ḥudūd were part of an educational process whereby the state hoped to improve the morals of its citizens. The NIF continued to support the implementation of these laws both after Nimeiri's...

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