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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Public Opinion and Religion: Gay Rights in the United States

Public Opinion and Religion: Gay Rights in the United States   Reference library

Darren E. Sherkat

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
6,175 words
Illustration(s):
1

...gradually broke down some of the boundaries between these movements, in large part because they shared a common opponent in the Christian Right ( Fetner, 2008 , 2015 ; Vitulli, 2010 ). In India, transgendered people have a unique status in some Hindu sects, and this has created controversy as conservative Hindus from other sects reject transgender rights ( Gettleman, 2018 ). Nevertheless, the issue of gender identity continues to divide many in the GLB community, in part because they see gender identity issues from a homonormative lens—where the key...

Political Contempt and Religion

Political Contempt and Religion   Reference library

Nathan C. Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
16,437 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rulings towered over that of all other religious groups ( 2004 ). They found that mainline Protestants were involved in approximately 4% of cases and received favorable decisions 70% of the time—specifically 65% for Free Exercise claims. Conversely, cases brought forth by Native Americans, Jews, and Catholics altogether accounted for 20% of Free Exercise cases, less than half of which were ruled in their favor (ranging from 40% to 47%). Wybraniec and Finke found that the trends continue to deteriorate: Muslims made up less than 1% of the American population...

Religious Nationalism and Religious Influence

Religious Nationalism and Religious Influence   Reference library

Anna Grzymala-Busse

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,142 words
Illustration(s):
1

...battled liberal or nationalist revolutions in the Czech lands, Italy, and France. The nation-state and the Church in these countries had a subsequently uneasy relationship. Private religious beliefs coexisted with secular political identities, but the church had only a tenuous claim to moral national authority. Thus, hostility between a secular state and a religious nation redounds to the latter, accentuating the chasm between the illegitimate state and the “real” religious nation. This adversarial state can be a secular authoritarian regime, a foreign...

Religious Regulation in Brazil

Religious Regulation in Brazil   Reference library

Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,906 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in Afro-Brazilian ceremonies. One of the justices who discussed his vote, Edson Fachin, went as far as defending a special protection for Afro-Brazilian religions, arguing that “it is necessary to give special protection to the cultures that have always been stigmatized.” He claimed that the secular character of the state means that religious dogmas cannot impose obligations on nonbelievers but permits the creation of exceptions to accommodate particular religions. 27 Until the Supreme Court makes a final decision on this matter, leaders from Afro-Brazilian...

Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia

Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia   Reference library

Susanne Olsson and Simon Sorgenfrei

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Table 1. Asylum Applications Filed in Scandinavian Countries by Top Countries of Origin, 2015 Country of Asylum Total Asylum Applications Top Country of Origin Second Country of Origin Third Country of Origin Sweden 162,877 Syria (51,338) Afghanistan (41,564) Iraq (20,857) Finland 32,476 Iraq (20,485) Afghanistan (5,214) Somalia (1,981) Norway 31,145 Syria (10,536) Afghanistan (6,987) Iraq (2,991) Denmark 7,162 Syria (3,515) Eritrea (1,276) Stateless (702) Note : Figures for Denmark include the first three quarters of 2015. Sources : Finnish Immigration...

On the Paradox of State Religion and Religious Freedom

On the Paradox of State Religion and Religious Freedom   Reference library

Zachary Elkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,368 words
Illustration(s):
7

...clauses in the last 20 years: Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Yemen People’s Republic, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, and Armenia. In between the recent and long-term cases, one finds a set of jurisdictions that are no doubt interesting in their own right. Figure 6. Constitutionalized state religion: Where and when? (Part I). Note : Sample/Universe: n = 809 of 1,110 known constitutional systems (and their amendments), 1800–2016. Source : Comparative Constitutions Project. Figure 7. Constitutionalized state religion: Where and when? (Part II). Note : Sample/Universe:...

Electoral Choice and Religion: Turkey

Electoral Choice and Religion: Turkey   Reference library

Ali Çarkoğlu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,921 words
Illustration(s):
4

...once a week. However, those who engage in prayer more than once a week rose slightly from around 48% in 2002 to about 54% in 2015 . In contrast, self-evaluations of religiosity across five elections show a clear rising trend. From 2002 through November 2015 those who claim to be religious (6 to 10) rose from about 66% to 84%. Which one of these two variables better reflect religiosity among the Turkish voters? The practice measure is advantageous since it had no scale changes and was used exactly the same way in all five surveys. Plus, the practice...

Hinduism: India, Nepal, and Beyond

Hinduism: India, Nepal, and Beyond   Reference library

Rina Verma Williams and Sayam Moktan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,729 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and political predominance of Hinduism as the majority religion of the region. Though religious conversion is constitutionally protected in India, it is prohibited in Nepal and highly contested in both countries. Again, this contestation is primarily led by right-wing forces that claim to protect Hinduism from proselytizing religions such as Islam and Christianity. India. India has been a secular state since independence despite—or because of—the bitter legacies of partition: at independence in 1947 , the country was partitioned on the basis of religion to...

Secularism and Politics

Secularism and Politics   Reference library

Jeremiah J. Castle and Patrick L. Schoettmer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
12,350 words
Illustration(s):
3

...& Fischer, 2002 , 2014 ; Putnam & Campbell, 2010 ; Schoettmer et al., 2011 ). The rise in the percentage of seculars came as a challenge to the conventional wisdom that the United States was immune from secularization. One response put forth by scholars has centered on the claim that, whatever is driving the nones away from organized religion in the United States, it is not secularization in the traditional sense ( Hout & Fischer, 2002 ; Hout & Greeley, 1987 ; Putnam & Campbell, 2010 ; Schoettmer et al., 2011 ). The speed of the decline, and its...

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics   Reference library

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Finally, God talk not only affects candidate support; it also—perhaps not surprisingly—effectively signals candidate ideology ( Calfano, Djupe, & Wilson, 2013 ; Weber & Thornton, 2012 ). Conversely, Djupe, Lewis, Jelen, and Dahan ( 2014 ) discover that “rights talk”—framing claims with religious implications in the language of rights, rather than religion—signals politicians’ ideological moderation and helps build support for religious liberty for evangelical dissenters ( Djupe, Lewis, & Jelen, 2016 ). Some of the most interesting work manipulating...

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