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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic material. Unlike many similar altars, those at Arad had no horns. The location of the altars...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the highest part of the site. It continued to be inhabited for many centuries. Western residential area. Although no clear stratigraphic remains have been discovered, numerous Attic black-ware sherds and quantities of late Hellenistic pottery, small finds, and coins indicate that occupation began on the summit in the Hasmonean era, if not already in the late Persian period. At the extreme west of the summit, rock-cut quarries testify to building activities during the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods. In the Roman period, a 7.2 ft (2.20 m) wide east–west...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...a natural hill ca. 2,460 ft (750 m) above sea level, first probably accessed only by a simple winding path that may originally have led up to a small fortification built earlier by Herod to lay claim to the hill. This fort was entirely covered by the new circular structure. The cylinder, presently entirely concealed inside the hill, originally stood free for the first 20 years. It comprised seven stories, the lowest two of which had strong barrel vaults serving as storage rooms, while the five above them (three of which were found in situ) had flat ceilings....

Shechem

Shechem   Reference library

Arye Bornstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,896 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the chain of valleys (Jabel Kabir and Jabel Yinon) limestone rocks from the Cenoman–Turonian epoch are exposed in the aquifer and rest on a foundation of marl stone. The area of Tell Balata and the mountains of Gerizim and Ebal are part of a geological syncline with tilted rock layers from the mountains east of the tell and form part of an anticline. As a result there is a flow of groundwater from the entire area toward the valley between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, and consequently there are a large number of springs in the The temple precinct at Tell Balata...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...telling example of this change is Cicero, whose villa at Tusculum is an example of stage-like sacrificial architecture, of which also numerous wall paintings and statues are evidence. It is difficult to assess the wall paintings in terms of their religious content. Some scholars claim that every individual house pursued a consistent religious concept, whether in the selection of wall paintings and their mythological themes or in the selection of divine figures. Furthermore, a religious content can be seen in painted landscapes as well as an underlying character...

Samaria/Sebaste

Samaria/Sebaste   Reference library

Daniel M. Master

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,708 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with the finest masonry work seen in the Iron Age. In this way the archaeological excavations provide substantial clarification to a few words in the biblical text. The biblical text hints that Samaria had a major urban population, perhaps part of a lower city not yet found by archaeologists. In 1 Kings 20 the king of Damascus allows Ahab to set up ḥûṣōt in Damascus just as the Aramean king’s father had set up in Samaria. These ḥûṣōt are usually understood to be marketplaces, and in the Hebrew Bible they appear only in major population centers....

Tell el-Farʿah (N)

Tell el-Farʿah (N)   Reference library

Michaël Jasmin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,821 words
Illustration(s):
1

...During period VIIa, Tell el-Far ʿ ah was not a fortified site, and the settlement was limited to the upper part of the tell, covering a perimeter of about 2.5 acres (1 ha). The previously built Middle-Bronze fortification may have been halfway visible, and the west city gate, though partly destroyed, may have been still in use. Among the different historical problems related to layer VIIa, its dating is a major issue: de Vaux and Chambon claimed that layer VIIa was clearly associated with the Iron I, that is, with the twelfth to eleventh centuries b.c.e....

Ephesus

Ephesus   Reference library

Katherine A. Shaner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Flavian temple terrace, stood the grave of C. Sextilius Pollio, one of the city’s major benefactors in the first century c.e. These graves and monuments along with the Artemis altar that marked the Triodos and Curetes Street stood at the center of claims to civic and religious identity and authority, claims made by and about Ephesus from imperial families, ruling elites, civic benefactors, and even former slaves. In the first and second centuries c.e. the built environment of the Triodos evolved strikingly, reflecting both the shifting assertions of...

Literacy, Iron Age

Literacy, Iron Age   Reference library

Alice Mandell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,213 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; for record keeping [ Num 33:2 , Josh 18:8–9 , Judg 8:14 ], including lists and genealogies [ Gen 5:1 ] and royal annals [ 1 Kgs 11:41 , 15:23 ; 2 Kgs 20:20 ]), as well as references to royal scribes ( 2 Sam 8:17 , 20:25 ; 1 Kgs 4:3 ; 2 Kgs 12:10 ; Isa 36:3 ), underscore their growing importance. Moreover, references to writing in Deuteronomy ( 4:13 , 6:9 , 27:3 , 28:58 , 29:20–21 , 30:10 , 31:19 , 31:24 ), in Josiah’s reforms ( 2 Kgs 22–23 ), in prophetic works ( Jer 25:13 , 29:1 , 30:2 , 36:4 , 36:8 ; Isa 8:1 , 29:11–12 , ...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221). Numismatic finds and the almost perfect state of many pavers on the south–north road...

Ashkelon

Ashkelon   Reference library

Adam J. Aja

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,734 words
Illustration(s):
3

...writers. Ashkelon is listed as one of the cities of the Philistine Pentapolis ( Josh 13:3 , 1 Sam 6:17 ), and its commercial power is recognized in a series of texts from the mention of its markets in the archaic poem in 2 Samuel 1:20 to denunciations by the prophets for connections to mercantile partners (cf. Jer 25:20 , Amos 1:8 , Zeph 2:4 , Zech 9:5 ). But Ashkelon’s deep and rich history goes far beyond what was reported in the biblical text. The excavation of the site has borne this out and will continue to enrich our understanding of life in...

Herodian Jericho

Herodian Jericho   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,624 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Part of it was an aqueduct that brought in water from a spring in Wadi Qelt to irrigate the plantations and gardens and later to fill the pools. The estate was walled, dates and balsam were grown, and a dovecote housed pigeons, which at the same time produced powerful fertilizer and provided cheap meat, typical for agricultural estates. To guard the estate, a square tower of 29.5 by 29.5 ft (9 by 9 m) was built. Not much else is known about the earliest stage of what was to become a complex sequence of sophisticated elite residences. Some have claimed that...

Rome (Ostia-Portus)

Rome (Ostia-Portus)   Reference library

Rabun M. Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the only matching feature on which everyone can agree is an artificial rectangular pond in the valley. A curious discovery in the Vigna Barberini has been identified as a dining hall of the Domus Aurea with a revolving vault described by Suetonius, but the claim has been challenged. The best-preserved part of the palace is embedded in the Oppian Hill overlooking the valley to its south. This subterranean complex of vaulted rooms and corridors, many of them ornamented with fourth-style frescoes and stuccoed vaults, created an international sensation when it was...

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