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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,588 words
Illustration(s):
3

...pl. 3:XIII, fig. 2). Built by the French company Bouygues and inaugurated with great pomp on 22 October 2004 , the building angered some Muslims by incorporating on its walls not only quotations from the Koran, but from the Ruhnama (Book of the Soul), a pseudo-spiritual work claimed to have been written by President Niyazov . 2. Kipchak Mosque, Ashgabat, designed by Kakajan Durdiev, Durli Durdieva and Robert Bellon, commissioned by Saparmurat Niyazov, completed 2004; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom; see Turkmenistan, §II III. Painting...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,461 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is comprised of those art forms that persist or emerge in the context of the evolution of modern ethnic and national identity ( see below). All these arts are claimed as Nigerian, although the interrelationship of forms from one group to another is only rarely obvious. The paradigm that, for example, brings together the antiquities of Ife, the sculptures in wood for shrines and palaces in the 19th and 20th century, and post-Independence developments in, say, textile design or painting, forms the notion of a Yoruba identity. Yet we know this to have evolved, in...

Indonesia, Republic of

Indonesia, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The kingdoms of Kediri ( 929–1222 ), about which almost nothing is known, Singhasari ( 1222–92 ) and Majapahit (1292– c. 1500 ) became powerful. The 14th-century Javanese panegyric Nagarakertagama claims that at that time Hindu Majapahit exerted authority over much of the Indonesian archipelago and even parts of mainland Southeast Asia. Although such claims are almost certainly exaggerated, it is certain that Bali was conquered by Majapahit between 1331 and 1351 . As a result of this conquest, Bali developed its own highly idiosyncratic form of Hinduism...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( 1900–84 ) and others were commissioned by the Ministry of the Interior and the Jerusalem Municipality to design the Old City and environs as part of a special area plan. The new master plan for Greater Jerusalem ( 1964–8 ) has since provided guidelines for the city’s development. Following the Six Day War in 1967 , Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and large-scale development took place, doubling the population within 20 years. New technology was developed to replace the traditional methods of cutting stone, now used as a facing material. A special commission...

Umayyad

Umayyad   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,344 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and coinage of the empire ( 692–7 ) finalized this break with the past. The Umayyad rulers, of whom the three strongest politically were Mu῾awiya , ῾Abd al-Malik ( r. 685–705 ; see §1 below) and Hisham ( r. 724–43 ), took the title khalīfat allāh (“God's deputy”), thereby claiming religious as well as political authority. Yet their reign was punctuated by religious revolts (notably in 680 and a civil war lasting intermittently from 683 to 692 ), while their attempts to hold the balance between conflicting tribal factions (especially Quda῾a vs. Qays) made...

History

History   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,377 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and nomadic pastoralists, whether Arab or Turkmen, remained marginal elements in the political system. This was due in part to the military power of the sultan’s mamluk regiments, in part to the deep-rooted bureaucratic traditions of the Nile Valley. Like its distant Saljuq ancestor, the Mamluk Empire insisted on its Islamic identity. The Mamluks made traditionalist Sunnism the only legitimate interpretation of the faith, and they claimed that their chief aim was to defend the sharī῾a . In this light, they honored the ulema, but allowed them little autonomy...

Ottoman

Ottoman   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,716 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(2002), pp. 2–13 F. Mahmud II ( b. 20 July 1785 ; r. 1808–39 ; d. 1 July 1839 ). Son of Abdülhamid I ( r. 1774–89 ) and Nakşidil Sultan. His mother was born Aimée Dubucq de Rivery of French–Créole parentage, who was captured by pirates and sold to the Ottoman imperial harem, where she became Valide Sultan (Queen Mother). He succeeded his cousin Selim III ( r. 1789–1807 ) and his brother Mustafa IV ( r. 1807–8 ). Mahmud is chiefly known for breaking the power of the janissaries, whose reactionary views were in part responsible for the Ottoman military...

Koran

Koran   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,105 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of an oral tradition, certain passages were normally recited in slightly different ways according to the specialist followed and regional school adhered to. Once the canonical text had been established, some variations—“readings” transmitted by a limited number of schools claiming some of the leading specialists in the Koran—continued to be allowed. II. Content . As a collection of revelations, the Koran is not a narrative of passages in which the religious message is developed but a predication in which narrative plays a secondary role. The revelations...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
48,691 words
Illustration(s):
10

...in the upper Zarafshan Valley were assembled from separately carved details, a technique that flourished in later times. Other pieces from the eastern part of the region are a column in the mausoleum of Abu῾l-Qasim Gurgani in the village of Urmetan and a superb 12th-century complex in the village of Chorku near Isfara. The first precisely dated pieces are a column ( 1316 ) from the mosque at Khiva and a column (20 Safar 753/7 April 1352 ; Tashkent, Aybek Mus. Hist. Uzbekistan) from Yasi (now Turkestan). A cenotaph (Bukhara, Hist. Mus.) from the tomb of Sayf...

Timurid

Timurid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,716 words
Illustration(s):
2

...city, of which only the tile-clad minarets at its four corners survived into the 20th century. The tile mosaic in black, light and dark blue, white, buff, yellow and an unusual light green is even more elaborate than that on the neighboring complex of Gawharshad. He greatly enlarged the shrine of ῾Ali ibn Abi Talib at Mazar-i Sharif ( 1480–81 ), probably to curry the favor of Shi῾ites, and ordered a spacious congregational mosque ( 1482–5 ) for Ziyaratgah, a small village 20 km south of Herat. In his Apologia he clearly articulated how the patronage of...

Carpets and flatweaves

Carpets and flatweaves   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
22,109 words
Illustration(s):
14

...and social upheavals of the late 19th century and early 20th. By contrast, the traditional type of Kırşehir carpet was produced well into the 20th century alongside examples using a totally Europeanized design vocabulary. Traditional modes of carpet-weaving and design persisted in many parts of Anatolia even after the growth of commercially oriented cottage industries serving domestic and foreign markets. Because the market virtually ignored slit tapestry-woven kilims until the last third of the 20th century, they continued to be woven in traditional formats...

Museums

Museums   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,787 words
Illustration(s):
1

...control over Syria, has a department of Arab–Islamic antiquities which exhibits finds from many sites, including the reconstructed façade from the palace at Qasr al-hayr west . An archaeological museum was established in Baghdad in 1923 , the same year that Turkey gave up its claim to rule there. Plans for an Iraqi national museum were developed in 1932 , after the British mandate was terminated and Iraq became a sovereign state. The Iraq National Museum in Baghdad ( http://www.baghdadmuseum.org ), completed in 1963 , contains material dating from the...

Mamluk

Mamluk   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,326 words
Illustration(s):
2

...had made when he received treatment at the hospital established by the Zangid Nur al-Din ( r. 1146–74 ) in Damascus. The octagonal plan of the mausoleum and its marble decoration were probably inspired by the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in an attempt to underscore Qala῾un's claim to be heir to the glory of the Umayyad caliphs ( r. 661–750 ; see Umayyad , §I ). Enc. Islam/2 : “Ḳalāwūn” K. A. C. Creswell : The Muslim Architecture of Egypt , ii (Oxford, 1959), pp. 190–212 M. Meinecke : “Das Mausoleum des Qala῾un in Kairo: Untersuchungen zur Genese der...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...citadel and was part of a redesign of the square to channel traffic through the citadel's main gate. It probably had a ceremonial or symbolic function; its imposing span and height would have made comparison with the Sasanian arch at Ctesiphon mandatory, while its functional aspects seem to be a genuine reworking of the Roman triumphal arch theme. The citadel itself is well preserved, but has been neither planned nor described in detail. The well at Bust comprises a vaulted structure above ground and a complex of vaulted chambers that descends 20 m underground...

Subject matter

Subject matter   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
13,008 words
Illustration(s):
4

...up of human faces, then human figures and eventually animals too. Presumably the near-illegibility of such inscriptions was part of the fun. Other tricks included boustrophedon , in which alternate lines of text would be written directly above the previous line, but upside down; palimpsests, where as many as three inscriptions, each in a different color or hand, are superimposed on each other; inscriptions written so as to form part of larger geometric patterns or inscriptions; square kufic, in which the letters are forced into interlocking rectilinear...

Tomb

Tomb   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,328 words
Illustration(s):
4

...with mud-brick as if it were plasticine, molding zones of transition into forms of unprecedented fantasy. Conversely, among several Indian sites with such groups of tombs, the 17th-century Chahar Gunbad at Golconda deserves special attention; indeed, the Indian subcontinent may claim to have more monumental medieval tombs than the rest of the Islamic world put together, some of them bearing Koranic inscriptions hundreds of meters long. In Turkey the outstanding example is at Ahlat, and in Iran, at Amul and Qum. At the Shah-i Zinda ( see Samarkand , §III, A )...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
30,062 words
Illustration(s):
22

...a technique that had been out of fashion for centuries. Less than 20 years later such inlay was being handled with complete assurance. The wider range of motifs used from the 12th century onwards includes scenes of pleasure and pastime drawn in an animated style. These appear in continuous bands that have to be read in sequence to be understood: crowded friezes of isocephalic figures standing, walking, squatting or riding and pairs of musicians, dancers or banqueters are shown as though part of a narrative, although no individual group or figure is...

Cairo

Cairo   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
11,952 words
Illustration(s):
7

...designed by European architects in the 1930s. The quarter of Heliopolis was founded at the beginning of the 20th century by the Belgian Baron Edouard d’Empain in the northeast outskirts of the city and became one of the most successful Western urban planning projects in Cairo. Its mixture of architectural styles, including Orientalism, makes it one of the most charming districts of Cairo. The demographic explosion since the beginning of the 20th century has opened a new chapter in the history of the city. This historic center, which occupies only a small...

Illustration

Illustration   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
66,597 words
Illustration(s):
33

...unillustrated historical texts, they document a preoccupation of the new Timurid ruler with establishing his dynasty’s legitimate claim to rule Iran. As works of art, the earliest of the illustrated histories is the best (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., B. 282). It is a large, handsomely illuminated and illustrated Kulliyyāt-i tārīkhī (“Historical compendium”), which includes Bal῾ami’s Persian adaptation of al-Tabari’s Annals , part of the Jāmi῾ al-tawārīkh (“Compendium of histories”) of the great Ilkhanid vizier Rashid al-Din and the earliest version of the...

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