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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...performance in around 1623 , and Part 1 was performed at court in 1625 (as The First Part of Sir John Falstaff ) and in 1638 (as Oldcastle , unless this was the collaborative Sir John Oldcastle written in 1600 to counter Shakespeare’s depiction of the knight, though this seems less likely). In the public theatres, it is generally assumed that Richard Burbage created the role of the Prince, but the identity of the original Sir John is uncertain: Malone claimed to have seen a document which assigned the part to Heminges . The role, however, was...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and Brutus part, resolved to kill themselves if defeated. 5.2–3 Brutus’ forces assault those of Octavius, but leave Cassius’ army at the mercy of Antony: Cassius sends Titinius to report from his camp. Seeing Titinius surrounded by cavalry, Cassius’ servant Pindarus reports that all is lost, and Cassius has himself killed by him. The cavalry, however, were those of Brutus’ army: finding Cassius’ body, Titinius kills himself. Brutus, young Cato, and others find their bodies, but rally for another assault. 5.4 Young Cato is killed: Lucillius, claiming to be...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed that the intense mother–son bond...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his humanity had led him to write a vindication of the Jews. The argument between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been more inclined to see him in thematic relation to the play’s other outsider, Antonio. Antonio’s erotically...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...mourning over the coffin of her father-in-law Henry VI, who was killed by Richard. Richard woos her, saying he killed Henry and her husband, Prince Edward, for the sake of her beauty, and that she must now charitably believe his motives were sincere. At first Anne scorns his claims, but ultimately, though still reluctantly, she yields. 1.3 Queen Elizabeth and her sons Dorset and Grey worry about Edward IV’s illness and the prospect of Gloucester becoming protector over Prince Edward. Gloucester questions her family’s loyalty to the Yorkists. Queen Margaret...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in the Stationers’ Register on 20 May 1608 . Text: Despite this entry, the play was not printed until the publication of the First Folio in 1623 , which provides the only authoritative text. It seems to have been printed from a good transcript of Shakespeare’s own foul papers , though not a Promptbook : although the spelling suggests the work of a scribe, some of the text’s minor errors (such as mistaken speech prefixes) are characteristically authorial, and others (such as entry directions for characters who play no part in the subsequent action) would...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for visual realization. The earliest version was an eight-minute sequence shot in America ( 1909 ). The year 1935 brought to the screen the Max Reinhardt film featuring Olivia de Havilland as Hermia, Mickey Rooney as Puck, and James Cagney as Bottom, so asserting a claim by Hollywood film actors for Shakespearian roles. Between 1937 and 1981 there were eight British television productions based on the play, the last being the visually elaborate BBC TV version produced by Jonathan Miller (with Elijah Moshinsky as director), some of its...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...success. Rejoining the party, he alone sees Banquo’s ghost sitting in his place, and speaks in guilty horror. Taking him aside, Lady Macbeth rebukes him for his visible distraction, and after the ghost leaves he is able to compose himself and apologize to his guests for what he claims is merely an indisposition. The ghost returns, however, and Macbeth speaks to it in such terror that Lady Macbeth has to dismiss the company. Left alone with his wife, Macbeth comments on Macduff’s absence from the feast, and resolves to consult the witches again. 3.5 The three...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...confirming the destruction of the Turkish fleet. Left with Roderigo, Iago tells him Desdemona is in love with Cassio, and outlines a scheme by which this new rival may be discredited: placed in charge of the watch that night, Roderigo will provoke Cassio into a brawl. Alone, Iago claims he too desires Desdemona, to avenge his own alleged cuckolding by Othello, and hopes that by convincing the Moor she is false with Cassio he may enjoy Othello’s favour. 2.2 A herald announces feasting in honour of Othello’s marriage. 2.3 Leaving Cassio in charge, Othello retires...

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in a wistful final tableau. In the 20th century the play was revived more frequently, with major Prosperos including Robert Atkins ( 1915 ) and, especially, John Gielgud , who played Ferdinand in 1926 but had already graduated to a Dantesque Prospero at the Old Vic in 1930 (with Ralph Richardson as Caliban). Gielgud repeated the role in 1940 , in 1957 (for Peter Brook at Stratford), and in 1973 (for Peter Hall at the National), and his intellectual, mellifluous, exquisitely spoken rendering of the part (particularly its rhetorical set...

Hoffmann, Heinrich

Hoffmann, Heinrich   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,182 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Jean Petersen . “Fetching the Jingle Along: Mark Twain's Slovenly Peter .” Children's Literature Association Quarterly 20, no. 1 (1995): 36–41. Freeman, Thomas . “Heinrich Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter : An Inquiry into the Effects of Violence in Children's Literature.” Journal of Popular Culture 10, no. 4 (1997): 808–820. Stahl, J. D. “Mark Twain's Slovenly Peter in the Context of Twain and German Culture.” The Lion and the Unicorn 20, no. 2 (1996): 166–180. Zipes, Jack . Sticks and Stones: The Troublesome Success of Children's Literature from Slovenly...

Myths

Myths   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of its available space). Introduced by a section dealing with “universal” themes—creation myths, gods and goddesses, heroes, monsters, supernatural animals, shape-shifting, and endings— the volume is arranged on principles of antiquity and region. A claim habitually made for classical myth—“A living part of all our heritage, myths are still some of the best stories of all time”—is here appropriated for a multicultural approach to myth. Such a move seems particularly significant because any contemporary collection of myths is less likely to be yet another...

School Stories

School Stories   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Joan Potter . The Tradition Revived? In the second half of the 20th century critics lost no opportunity to draw attention to the school story's irrelevance, false values, and lack of realism. The bugbear of librarians and teachers, school stories began to be removed from school and library shelves, causing publishers to curtail their lists even though there was still a reading market for them. By the 1970s the genre appeared to be in terminal decline. Then, just as one could confidently claim that the school story was dead, along came Harry Potter . J. K....

Chatterton, Thomas

Chatterton, Thomas   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,244 words
Illustration(s):
1

...claims, his vegetarianism, and even his flamboyant style of dress. But Chatterton was neither starving, neglected, mad, nor suicidal: he died of an accidental overdose of arsenic mixed with opium, which he was taking as treatment for a sexually transmitted disease. Ironically, a matter of days after he died an Oxford don visited Bristol seeking information on Chatterton and Rowley, and the debate over the authenticity of the papers began. It raged for the next dozen years, fueled in part by the untimely death of the central figure. The Rowley poems can claim...

Multiculturalism and Children's Books

Multiculturalism and Children's Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,218 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In Australia, the idea that the nation is built on a foundation of Britishness survives despite the fact that more than 20 percent of Australians were born in countries other than Australia, and among conservative groups, multiculturalism is blamed for the dilution of national identity. A defining factor in Canadian versions of multiculturalism is the proximity of the United States, which drives Canadian formulations of nationhood toward claims of unity and common purpose while members of minority groups resist homogenization. In the United States the term...

Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,047 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1907 , thought that in its simplistic approach and relish for bloodthirsty detail the book was essentially “a child's history.” But no reader of any age could find it easy to follow: lack of dates and genealogies forces one to struggle through a morass of dynastic marriages and claims to the throne with no lifeline. Other Works for Children Dickens's own favorite childhood reading had been fairy tales, and he frequently recalled these in his novels and occasional writing. He execrated attempts to tamper with what he considered sacred text. In “Frauds on the...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the child stayed in the quiet of his own house and enjoyed creating his own “media” experiences. The 20th Century: Transitions into the Modern For the most part, 20th-century poetry for children relinquished didacticism for delight. Nonsense verse appeared even in periodicals for children that often relied on sentimental themes and pious appeals, such as the well-known St. Nicholas magazine ( Nov. 1873–Mar. 1940 ; some issues in 1943 ). In fact, the 20th century offered poems that play with didacticism, mock stories of incautious or unpleasant children...

Fairy Tales and Folk Tales

Fairy Tales and Folk Tales   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,901 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Indeed, during the first part of the 20th century it became increasingly difficult to draw boundaries between fairy tales for children and adults. Yet one thing is clear and has always been true: adults have always read, censored, approved, and distributed the so-called fairy tales for children. On the other hand, as more and more children have become functionally and culturally literate, and as they have become more worldly, they have either sought the reading material of adults or been exposed to this reading material. In fact, part of children's...

Comic Books

Comic Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,242 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in comics in Britain they remained relegated to newspapers in the United States. Most other countries followed even later in picking up these formats. The 20th Century One result of the battle between Pulitzer and Hearst was the regular publication of daily strips, usually humorous, featuring Dirks and Opper plus others, like Bud Fisher ’s Mutt and Jeff ( 1907 ). Concurrently, the early 20th century was a period of innovation and boldness, most notably with Winsor McCay ’s beautifully drafted dream sequences in Little Nemo in Slumberland ( 1905 )...

Children's Magazines

Children's Magazines   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,434 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Another strong and distinctive literary magazine, the Brownies' Book ( 1920–1921 ), published by W. E. B. Du Bois , editor of the NAACP's Crisis , was directed toward African American families and designed in part to rectify the demeaning image of black children so frequently found in mainstream periodicals, including St. Nicholas . The 20th century presented a difficult climate for children's magazines in America, apart from comic books, and American journals that have prospered tend to be directed toward readers with special interests. Highlights...

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