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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Central Maluku Languages

Central Maluku Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,879 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Snabi Watubela, Kasiui, Kesui, Kasui, Wesi, Esiriun, Matabello. 4,000 speakers in eastern central Maluku, Watubela Islands, north of Kur Island. Dialects are Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Many claim to use Geser-Gorom as second language. Wemale, North: 4,930 speakers in Maluku spread along the northern coast of Taniwel district, east of Taniwel, and in the westernmost part of eastern Seram district, 24 villages. Dialects are Horale, Kasieh, Uwenpantai. Kawe may be a dialect. Language used in church. Vigorous language use. Wemale, South: also called Tala,...

Niger-Congo Languages

Niger-Congo Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,009 words
Illustration(s):
7

...languages score higher with languages outside Atlantic; for example, according to Wilson (in Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989 :92), Papel in North Atlantic scores higher with Common Bantu and Dagbani (Gur) than with Bijogo or any South Atlantic language. Segerer 2001 claims that Bijogo scores 20–40% with Common Bantu and shows regular sound correspondences. Atlantic relationship appears more clearly from grammatical evidence in the nominal and verbal systems; if Atlantic cannot stand as a family, the grammatical reconstructions may belong to a higher level of...

Lolo-Burmese Languages

Lolo-Burmese Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,912 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Yi, but communication is claimed to be possible with all locations. High bilingualism in Chinese is reported among young people. Zaiwa: also called Tsaiwa, Atsi, Atzi, Aji, Atshi, Aci, Azi, Atsi-Maru, Szi, Xiaoshanhua. 110,000 speakers in China and Myanmar. In China: 80,000 speakers in Yunnan Province, Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Bangwa districts in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture. Dialects are Zaiwa, Langwa, Polo. Closely related to Maru, Lashi, and Pela. Dialects have only minor phonological differences. 25% (20,000) are monolingual, mainly...

Tone

Tone   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,843 words
Illustration(s):
6

...may also have a M[id] tone, defining a third tone height, e.g. Yoruba dí ‘to block’, dï ‘to become’, dì ‘to tie’; and also a fourth lower-mid ('M) tone, as in Chatino k' ṹ ‘I eat’, k' ũ̄ ‘I grind’, k'ũ ũ̍ ‘sweet potato’, k' ũ̀ ‘dove’. The few languages that have been claimed to have five contrastive tone heights may be subject to reanalysis. Contour tones , which involve a change of pitch on the same vowel or other T[one-]B[earing] U[nit], occur in many languages, especially in East Asia. For example, of the four contrasting tones of Standard...

Arawakan Languages

Arawakan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,122 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Ignaciano used in town meetings unless outsiders present. Many use Ignaciano in daily life. Ignaciano a required subject in the lower school grades, one session per week. Speakers are encouraged to maintain ethnicity by the popularity of their many church-related pageants, to claim their lands according to timber rights, and various other improvements. Iñapari: also called Inamari. 4 speakers remain in Peru. Formerly spoken on Piedras River, at the mouth of Sabaluyo, near Puerto Maldonado. Extinct in Bolivia. All are reported to be bilingual in Spanish. No...

Linguistic Relativity

Linguistic Relativity   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...out, is a “construction” which one formulates in part through attention to “the syntactic patterns of the language spoken by the people who have that view.” The types of discourse favored by ethnic groups or social classes may offer clues to their world views. Oratory, prayer, witty repartee, or quiet conversation imply different views of human relationships and of the self; each community has its own repertoire of speech events, organized and valued in distinctive ways. Finally, literacy has been claimed to affect or even to transform world view. Jack...

Biu-Mandara Languages

Biu-Mandara Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,909 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Plain Bura). Kofa may be a related language. Buwal: also called Ma Buwal, Bual, Gadala. 5,000 speakers in Cameroon. In and around Gadala, Mokolo subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Far North Province. May be intelligible with Gavar. Speakers closer to Mofu or Gavar regions claim to understand those languages. Fulfulde and French bilingualism is limited. Buwal is used in church. Cibak: also called Chibuk, Chibok, Chibbak, Chibbuk, Kyibaku, Kibbaku, Kikuk. 100,000 speakers in Nigeria, state of Borno, Damboa LGA. Cineni: 3,000 speakers in Nigeria, state of...

Gur Languages

Gur Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,515 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Degha, Mo, Mmfo, Aculo, Janela, Buru. 21,000 speakers in Ghana and Ivory Coast. In Ghana: 20,000 speakers in the west central area, west of Volta Lake. Dialects are Longoro, Mangum, Boe. Twi (Akan) is widely spoken as second language. English is also used. In Ivory Coast: 1,100 speakers. Delo: also called Ntrubo, Ntribu, Ntribou. 11,400 speakers in Ghana and Togo. In Ghana: 6,000 speakers at the east central border with Togo. The paramount chief is at Brewaniase, 20 miles south of Nkwanta. It has been reclassified from Kwa to Gur family. Bilingualism in Twi,...

Pidgins and Creoles

Pidgins and Creoles   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
10,773 words
Illustration(s):
2

...basilect. Creole Arabic, Sudanese: also called Juba Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic, Pidgin Arabic. 20,000 speakers in Sudan. Difficult intelligibility with Nubi, Sudanese Arabic, or Modern Standard Arabic. Also used as the major language of communication among speakers of different languages in Equatoria, south of Wau and Malakal. Used in many church services as first or second language in Juba and a few other towns. Many schoolteachers use it at least part of the time. Most people in towns speak at least two languages, and it is common for them to speak...

Neurolinguistics

Neurolinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,007 words
Illustration(s):
4

...skills, whereas irregular word formation processes, such as the formation of the past tense of irregular English verbs like ran or brought , is carried out in the same part of the cortex in which simple, non-derived words like book or tiger are represented (Pinker 1999 ). Many of these possible examples of localization are either incompatible with the Geschwind model (such as the claim by Damasio et al. 1996 that word forms are accessed in the inferior temporal lobe), or are not treated by that model (as in the model of word formation described...

Phonetics

Phonetics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
6,530 words
Illustration(s):
2

... pan is transcribed [p h æ̃n]. A genuinely phonetic transcription is supposed to record all the sounds of an utterance, irrespective of their linguistic status, and hence to be language-independent; this is sometimes called an impressionistic transcription. The strongest claim for the independence of phonetic transcription was made by Pike 1943 ; however, Chomsky and Halle 1968 have argued strongly that the idea of a language-independent transcription is meaningless. Phonetic transcriptions may be classed as broad or narrow , according to the...

Pashto

Pashto   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,638 words
Illustration(s):
4

...upheavals and massive refugee movements caused by the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979 , there were probably some seven million native speakers in that country, and almost as many in Pakistan. The Pashto literary tradition goes back at least to the 16th century, but claims of much earlier activity are of very dubious authenticity. It is thus the second most important modern language of the Iranian family, in terms both of numbers of speakers and of age. Historically, Pashto belongs to the Eastern branch of the Iranian family of languages; it is...

Khoisan Languages

Khoisan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,825 words
Illustration(s):
1

...West Caprivi in Namibia is recognized as the “core land” of the Kxoe people by the Kxoe and the Namibian government. They also live in East Caprivi. Dialects are [[Xo-Kxoe, [[Xom-Kxoe, Buma-Kxoe, Buga-Kxoe. Minor dialect differences within Kxoe. Many young people in West Caprivi claim not to understand Mbukushu at all. English, Afrikaans, and Kxoe used for oral teaching in schools, textbooks are in English. Vigorous language use. Kxoe speakers want Kxoe teachers and learning materials used in schools. Many non-Kxoe learn Kxoe for interaction with Kxoe. In...

Semantics

Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
18,984 words
Illustration(s):
6

... 1967 , Bogusławski 1970 , Jackendoff 1990 . A first “working set” of twenty-three primitives was drawn up by Žolkovskij, who did not claim, however, that this set was non-arbitrary or universal. The first hypothetical set of non-arbitrary and universal semantic primitives was proposed by Wierzbicka in 1972 . It included thirteen elements: I, you, someone, something, this, want, don't want, think, feel, imagine, become, part , and world . In later work, the proposed set of primes was modified and, above all, significantly expanded; and as Figure 1 shows, it...

Semitic Languages

Semitic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
8,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...original location, and is gaining ground throughout the Jacobite diaspora in other countries. All speakers are bilingual in their national languages or local lingua francas, and some are multilingual. Syriac script. In Sweden: 20,000 speakers. In Germany: 20,000 speakers. In Syria: 7,000 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,000 as of 1994 . Related to, but different from Northeastern Aramaic. Western Syriac used in church, Arabic in schools and trade. Turoyo used at home. Syriac script. In USA: 5,000 speakers in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts. In...

Amharic

Amharic   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,938 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Front government, which took power in 1991 . There is now no official language, but Amharic remains the main language of education and other official functions. The 1984 census of Addis Ababa, the capital and dominant urban center, showed that about half its 1,412,000 people claimed Amharic as their first language (population in 2000 about 2,300,000, but no figure on Amharic speakers is available). Addis Ababa is now one of two cities and nine ethnic “regional states” into which the country was divided in 1998 . Total population is estimated at 2000 as...

History of Linguistics

History of Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
44,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in this field are an important part of our appreciation of the subject today. (For general reference, see Pinborg 1975 , Robins 1979 , Hovdhaugen 1982 , Matthews 1994 .) From the early and rather pre-theoretical speculations of the pre-Socratic thinkers in Greece, up to the theoretical and practical advances that are claimed by linguists today, there lie some two and a half millennia of continuous scholarship, systematic teaching, and writing about language, no matter what designation was given to such work. It can be claimed in linguistics, as in several...

Central Indo-Aryan Languages

Central Indo-Aryan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,360 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Gujarati. Trade language. Dhatki: also called Dhati. 200,000 speakers in Pakistan in Lower Sind in Tharparkar and Sanghar districts. Dialects are Eastern Dhatki, Southern Dhatki, Central Dhatki, Barage, Malhi. Varies considerably from northern Marwari, although they claim to understand one another. The Malhi are an ethnic group living in three main areas. Those in the Kunri-Pithoro-Noakot-Mithi area speak a dialect with 80% lexical similarity to Dhatki, 74% to Sindhi, and work as water-drawers. People also speak some Sindhi and Urdu. Dhatki of...

Language Change

Language Change   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
11,996 words
Illustration(s):
4

...can be represented by means of an input-output rule of the form x > y / z (“ x becomes y in the environment z ”), where the input specifies a phonological segment (or class of segments) belonging to a given language state, the change part its replacement in the subsequent language state, and the environment part the conditioning factor in terms of surrounding phonological segments or of suprasegmental features stated within the framework of the word (between vowels, word-initially, in a stressed syllable, etc.). Phonological change is thus concerned...

Phonological Processes

Phonological Processes   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,687 words
Illustration(s):
16

...than for the corresponding vowel in Set B. This pattern is known as A[dvanced] T[ongue] R[oot] Harmony. Abuan examples are: (2) Set A: ibughufaph ‘bush snail’ (3) Set B: pAghArAnAAn ‘to answer’ Vowel harmony involving the phonological dimensions listed in Table 1 has been claimed to exist (for each dimension we give the distinctive features involved, with alternate names where relevant). Table 1. Dimensions of Vowel Harmony (a) Palatal harmony [−back] ([+front]) (b) Labial harmony [+round] (c) ATR harmony [+covered] ([+ATR]) (d) Nasal harmony [+nasal]...

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