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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...performance in around 1623 , and Part 1 was performed at court in 1625 (as The First Part of Sir John Falstaff ) and in 1638 (as Oldcastle , unless this was the collaborative Sir John Oldcastle written in 1600 to counter Shakespeare’s depiction of the knight, though this seems less likely). In the public theatres, it is generally assumed that Richard Burbage created the role of the Prince, but the identity of the original Sir John is uncertain: Malone claimed to have seen a document which assigned the part to Heminges . The role, however, was...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and Brutus part, resolved to kill themselves if defeated. 5.2–3 Brutus’ forces assault those of Octavius, but leave Cassius’ army at the mercy of Antony: Cassius sends Titinius to report from his camp. Seeing Titinius surrounded by cavalry, Cassius’ servant Pindarus reports that all is lost, and Cassius has himself killed by him. The cavalry, however, were those of Brutus’ army: finding Cassius’ body, Titinius kills himself. Brutus, young Cato, and others find their bodies, but rally for another assault. 5.4 Young Cato is killed: Lucillius, claiming to be...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed that the intense mother–son bond...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his humanity had led him to write a vindication of the Jews. The argument between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been more inclined to see him in thematic relation to the play’s other outsider, Antonio. Antonio’s erotically...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the Islamic South; independence from Spain declared in 1898 , but only achieving sovereignty from the US in 1946 ) are predominantly Roman Catholic. The city-state of Singapore (independence: 1965 ), previously a British colony and part of Malaysia, is often referred to as a ‘Chinese enclave’ by its neighbours. Until the 20 th century, the overwhelming majority of the myriad language communities in this region were pre-literate. However, most of them have rich and varied oral traditions. It has been argued that even in the ‘literate’ societies—such as...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...mourning over the coffin of her father-in-law Henry VI, who was killed by Richard. Richard woos her, saying he killed Henry and her husband, Prince Edward, for the sake of her beauty, and that she must now charitably believe his motives were sincere. At first Anne scorns his claims, but ultimately, though still reluctantly, she yields. 1.3 Queen Elizabeth and her sons Dorset and Grey worry about Edward IV’s illness and the prospect of Gloucester becoming protector over Prince Edward. Gloucester questions her family’s loyalty to the Yorkists. Queen Margaret...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...2 The Middle Ages 3 The 15 th century 4 The 16 th century 5 The 17 th century 6 The 18 th century 7 The 19 th century 8 The 20 th century 1 Introduction Historically, ‘Germany’ is difficult to define in geographical and political terms. The Roman province of Germania covered only the southern part of what we now call Germany; the area north and east of the Danube, Main, and Rhine was never part of the Roman empire. Whereas around 1200 Germany was thought of as extending ‘from the Rhine to Hungary’—and Hoffmann von Fallersleben in the...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the purest efficacy and extraction of that living intellect that bred them’. The book thus achieves a further mystery, of transforming what appears to be purely immaterial and conceptual into something with a concrete form. It is therefore not entirely extravagant for Milton to claim that a book possesses ‘a life beyond life’. Destroying a book, then, Milton says, is like an act of homicide—indeed it is worse than that, since a book encloses the life of more than one person and exists in more than one time. Paradoxically, regardless of the material survival of...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...*apprentices and apprenticeships and to seize illegal books ( see censorship ), and it prohibited printing by non-members. This largely confined printing to London, centralizing the trade until the end of the 17 th century ( see 20a ). The Company’s custom of recording permission to print a book—a practice inaugurated in part to forestall adverse competition between its members—became regularized, and in 1559 the *Stationers’ Register became the authoritative record within the trade of who had the right to print copies of a work. By Elizabeth I ’s...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in the Stationers’ Register on 20 May 1608 . Text: Despite this entry, the play was not printed until the publication of the First Folio in 1623 , which provides the only authoritative text. It seems to have been printed from a good transcript of Shakespeare’s own foul papers , though not a Promptbook : although the spelling suggests the work of a scribe, some of the text’s minor errors (such as mistaken speech prefixes) are characteristically authorial, and others (such as entry directions for characters who play no part in the subsequent action) would...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...most important claim is that Chinese characters are ‘ideographic’—a word now generally avoided by scholars in favour of the more specific ‘logographic’. That is, the characters are thought to be capable of communicating ideas without the intervention of phoneticism or indeed spoken language. Thus, Chinese speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who do not know each other’s ‘dialect’ and cannot talk to each other are said to be able to communicate in writing through Chinese characters. Some scholars (both Chinese and westerners) have even claimed that the same...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...the late 1840s . More sophisticated machines of this kind were marketed successfully and used well into the 20 th century ( see composing machines ). The second system, which overtook the first, was for a machine that cast a new printing surface. Several machines of this kind were invented and produced between the 1880s and World War I, but only two of them effectively survived; these divided the larger part of the market between them during the 20 th century. In 1887 , the Linotype machine was launched by *Mergenthaler , a German immigrant to the US. A...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914 Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the copying and decoration of MSS for such clients as Cosimo de’ Medici and Federico da *Montefeltro . Late in life, Vespasiano included in his memoirs a spiteful jab at the printing press, which was putting traditional bookmakers like himself out of business. His jaundiced claim that Federico would never have allowed a printed text in his collection is unfounded, but revealing. It shows that it is misleading to apply to Italy the idea—intrinsic to Lucien *Febvre ’s and Henri-Jean *Martin ’s French concept of the *history of the book —of a sharp rupture...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...are especially notorious, but the phenomenon has continued into the present era: important Islamic MS collections have been wholly or partly destroyed in and after the wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq in the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries. What remains, however, forms a substantial part of the world’s intellectual and textual heritage. Not only is this heritage a vital underpinning of Muslim life and thought, but it has also constituted an essential strand of the European philosophical and scientific tradition. This was...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and Houghton Mifflin’s Horace Scudder remained committed to fulfilling that promise—hence, their willingness to publish poetry or criticism at a loss—but they did so in part because they understood that distinguishing their firms from reprint houses and producers of cheap fiction had its own marketing value. In their efforts to rationalize production and distribution, late 19 th - and early 20 th -century publishers also tried to gain control over the price of books. The imposition of international copyright protection in 1891 and the consequent blow to...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Of the five verse novels of Chrétien de Troyes ( fl . 1170–85 ), the most important writer of his age, there are no MSS before 1200 . As early as the 13 th century, the most widely disseminated French work was the allegorical, didactic Roman de la Rose (first part c .1230 , second part c .1270 ): about 250 complete copies are preserved. Troubadour poems started being collected only during the 14 th century. By then, Christine de Pisan, the first real woman of letters, operated the equivalent of a small private scriptorium to disseminate her poems....

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for visual realization. The earliest version was an eight-minute sequence shot in America ( 1909 ). The year 1935 brought to the screen the Max Reinhardt film featuring Olivia de Havilland as Hermia, Mickey Rooney as Puck, and James Cagney as Bottom, so asserting a claim by Hollywood film actors for Shakespearian roles. Between 1937 and 1981 there were eight British television productions based on the play, the last being the visually elaborate BBC TV version produced by Jonathan Miller (with Elijah Moshinsky as director), some of its...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...success. Rejoining the party, he alone sees Banquo’s ghost sitting in his place, and speaks in guilty horror. Taking him aside, Lady Macbeth rebukes him for his visible distraction, and after the ghost leaves he is able to compose himself and apologize to his guests for what he claims is merely an indisposition. The ghost returns, however, and Macbeth speaks to it in such terror that Lady Macbeth has to dismiss the company. Left alone with his wife, Macbeth comments on Macduff’s absence from the feast, and resolves to consult the witches again. 3.5 The three...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...confirming the destruction of the Turkish fleet. Left with Roderigo, Iago tells him Desdemona is in love with Cassio, and outlines a scheme by which this new rival may be discredited: placed in charge of the watch that night, Roderigo will provoke Cassio into a brawl. Alone, Iago claims he too desires Desdemona, to avenge his own alleged cuckolding by Othello, and hopes that by convincing the Moor she is false with Cassio he may enjoy Othello’s favour. 2.2 A herald announces feasting in honour of Othello’s marriage. 2.3 Leaving Cassio in charge, Othello retires...

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