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Maya Angelou

Subject: Literature

1928– ) Black US writer, whose status as a national icon was confirmed by her reading one of her poems, ‘On the Pulse of the Morning’, at President Clinton's inauguration in ...

Angelou, Maya

Angelou, Maya (4 April 1928)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,085 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Maya Angelou’s re-creation of the autobiography enhanced the breadth and scope of the American literary canon. Bibliography Angelou, Maya . Gather Together in My Name . New York: Random House, 1974. Angelou, Maya . The Heart of a Woman . New York: Random House, 1981. Angelou, Maya . I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings . New York: Random House, 1970. Angelou, Maya . Singin’ and Swingin’ and Getting’ Merry Like Christmas . New York: Random House, 1976. Angelou, Maya . A Song Flung Up to Heaven . New York: Random House, 2002. Bloom, Harold , ed. Maya Angelou,...

Woodard, Alfre

Woodard, Alfre (8 November 1953)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,012 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Golden Globe nomination; The Piano Lesson ( 1995 ), for which she received an Emmy nomination and a Screen Actors Guild Best Actress Award; Miss Evers’ Boys ( 1997 ), which resulted in an Emmy, a Golden Globe, and a SAG Award; and Down in the Delta ( 1998 ), directed by Maya Angelou . It seems as though every time she appears on screen, Woodard is nominated for—and frequently wins—an award. Woodard was also nominated for a 2003 Emmy Award for her performance on the television series The Practice . In addition to her film and television work, Woodard...

Simpson, Valerie

Simpson, Valerie (26 August 1948)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
845 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the soundtrack of the motion picture The Bodyguard . Simpson’s career also included many roles as a commercial singer, as well as a back-up singer for Paul Simon and Steely Dan . Simpson appeared as a guest DJ for Kiss FM in New York and released an album with novelist Maya Angelou in 1996 . Throughout her forty-year career as a songwriter, singer, and producer, Simpson established a strong reputation in the entertainment industry. Along with her husband, she created an extraordinary body of work that included dozens of hit singles. Together Simpson...

Tyson, Cicely

Tyson, Cicely (19 December 1933)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,859 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and she was honored with two Vernon Rice awards in 1962 for her off-Broadway roles in The Blacks and Moon on a Rainbow Shawl . Tyson was one of the original cast members in Jean Genet ’s controversial show The Blacks . The gifted cast included James Earl Jones , Maya Angelou , Lou Gossett Jr. , Godfrey Cambridge , and Raymond St. Jacques . Nearly ten years later, Tyson would resurrect her role as Stephanie Virtue Diop in The Blacks and become part of the Playhouse in the Park series in Cincinnati, Ohio. Her performance received recognition...

Baraka, Amiri

Baraka, Amiri (b. 7 October 1934)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,433 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Amina edited Confirmation: An Anthology of African-American Women , which won an American Book Award from the Before Columbus Foundation. In 1984 Baraka published The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones . That same year he became a full professor at Stony Brook. In 1987 , with Maya Angelou and Toni Morrison , Baraka was invited to speak at the ceremony commemorating the late writer James Baldwin . Also that year Baraka, collaborating again with Amina, published The Music: Reflections on Jazz and Blues . Baraka's list of awards includes a Guggenheim...

Bonds, Margaret Allison Richardson

Bonds, Margaret Allison Richardson (3 March 1913)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,244 words
Illustration(s):
1

...work, “Marquette Street Blues,” at the age of five. When Price moved into the Bonds home at 6652 South Wabash to escape racism in Little Rock, Arkansas, she taught Bonds piano and composition. Margaret Bonds (at left) with the singer McHenry Boatwright (standing at left), Maya Angelou (standing at right), and others, c. 1960s. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library Bonds earned bachelor of music ( 1933 ) and master of music ( 1934 ) degrees from Northwestern University. Yet, because she was African American, Bonds was not...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,676 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Sings ( 1969 ), which was nominated for the National Book Award; and poetry: A Brave and Startling Truth ( 1995 ), The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou ( 1994 ), Shaker, Why Don’t You Sing? ( 1983 ), and Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water ’fore I Die ( 1971 ), nominated for the Pulitzer Prize. Angelou’s list of accomplishments has an awe-inspiring degree of depth and range. In 1959 Maya Angelou became northern coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference at the request of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. From 1961 to 1962 she was...

Giovanni, Nikki

Giovanni, Nikki (7 June 1943)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,972 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2002: 112-135. Fowler, Virginia C. , ed. Conversations with Nikki Giovanni . Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1992. Fowler, Virginia C. Nikki Giovanni . New York: Twayne, 1992. Georgoudaki, Ekaterini . Race, Class, Gender, and Class Perspectives in the Works of Maya Angelou, Gwendolyn Brooks, Rita Dove, Nikki Giovanni, and Audre Lorde . Thessaloniki, Greece: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, 1991. Harris, William J. Sweet Soft Essence of Possibility: The Poetry of Nikki Giovanni. In Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical...

Entertainment Industry and African Americans

Entertainment Industry and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,935 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Drama Critics’ Circle named it the best play of 1959 . The French playwright Jean Genet's The Blacks opened in New York in 1961 and featured the young actors Roscoe Lee Browne , James Earl Jones , Louis Gossett Jr. , Cicely Tyson , and Maya Angelou , all of whom went on to have distinguished careers, Angelou as a poet. Jones was the first African American to win a Tony Award for best actor, for The Great White Hope in 1969 . He won a second for Fences in 1987 , written by August Wilson , one of the most prolific and best black playwrights, who...

Baldwin, James

Baldwin, James (b. 2 August 1924)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,514 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and Bernard Hassell at his side on 1 December . His funeral service at the Episcopal Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, in New York City, following viewings in Saint-Paul de Vence and Harlem, was attended by over five thousand people. He was eulogized by Toni Morrison , Maya Angelou , Amiri Baraka , and others and buried on 8 December at Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York. [ See also Evers, Medgar Wylie ; Homosexuality and Transgenderism ; Literature ; Sexuality ; and Till, Emmett, Lynching of .] Bibliography Baldwin, James . “As Much Truth...

Autobiography

Autobiography   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,698 words
Illustration(s):
2

...; Jacobs, Harriet Ann ; Keckley, Elizabeth ; Lee, Jarena ; McClain, Leanita ; Ringgold, Faith ; Taylor, Susie Baker King ; Walker, Margaret Abigail ; and Waters, Ethel . Featuring Writers of Autobiography Maya Angelou ( 1928 - ), a renowned poet, is perhaps most famous for her autobiographical works. (See individual entry: Angelou, Maya .) Bertice Berry ( 1960 - ) wrote two memoirs of her rise from poverty to celebrity. She was born in Wilmington, Delaware , one of seven children raised by a single mother. She graduated magna cum laude from...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,925 words
Illustration(s):
3

...was also inclusive of women artists and openly gay and lesbian artists, such as the documentary filmmaker Marlon Riggs , the choreographer Bill T. Jones , and the novelist E. Lynn Harris . Women novelists such as Toni Morrison , Alice Walker , Toni Cade Bambara , Maya Angelou , and Terry McMillan appealed to white and black audiences. Whereas black feminists used the novel and black arts nationalists used poetry, a younger generation of African Americans, collectively known as the hip-hop nation, turned to rap music to express its concerns....

Actors and Actresses

Actors and Actresses   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,410 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Theater, started by Barbara Ann Teer . Lorraine Hansberry , who wrote A Raisin in the Sun , became the first African American woman to write a play for Broadway. Other prominent black playwrights who wrote for African American actors and audiences were August Wilson and Maya Angelou . Actors and actresses brought the same type of powerful character that appeared in the 1970s black action movies to Broadway. For example, in 1969 James Earl Jones won a Tony Award for Best Actor for his work in The Great White Hope . The Dynamics of Television as a...

Walker, Alice

Walker, Alice (9 February 1944)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,872 words
Illustration(s):
1

...viewed black women writers. Poet, novelist, short story writer, critic, and essayist, Walker was only twenty-six years old when her stunning debut novel, The Third Life of Grange Copeland , appeared in 1970 , alongside first major works by such subsequent luminaries as Maya Angelou , Toni Cade Bambara , and Toni Morrison . In addition to contributing to that dramatic moment in the nation’s history, Walker remained one of the most prolific and versatile within the group. Over three decades, she produced seven novels, three collections of short stories,...

Women

Women   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,907 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a feminist reexamination of the nature of art and began to create unconventional works that reflected their heritage as women and as people of African descent. Black women also began to flourish in literature, producing groundbreaking novels and gaining international acclaim. Maya Angelou's autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , was published in 1969 . The list of books published the following year included first novels by Toni Morrison and Alice Walker . The cultural icon and radical activist Angela Davis wrote “Reflections on the Black...

Childhood

Childhood   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,013 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a crime, but the court said it did not apply to Celia, a slave. Certainly two court cases are not representative of every such case. But they, like Harriet Jacobs ’s 1861 narrative recounting sexual harassment during her formative years in slavery, and contemporary writer Maya Angelou ’s account of sexual abuse suffered when she was eight years old, raise questions about the degree to which sexual exploitation scarred the childhood of black girls. The frequency of such exploitation historically remains unknown; however, the absence of such data does not...

Rape

Rape   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,497 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In 1977 she was acquitted. © Bettye Lane Black female writers of the twentieth century have unleashed a literary salvo attacking head-on the issue of sexual abuse of African American females while also breaking the silence that so permeates the experience of black rape. Maya Angelou , Alice Walker , Rosa Guy , and Gloria Naylor are just a few of the black authors who treat the rape of black women as a prominent theme in their works. The popular talk show host, entrepreneur, and actress Oprah Winfrey has also been very candid about her own experience...

Monuments, Museums, Public Markers

Monuments, Museums, Public Markers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,805 words
Illustration(s):
2

...plaque was placed to pay homage to one Kunta Kinte, Alex Haley 's ancestor, who came ashore there; it was positioned next to a bronze representation of Haley talking to three small children. In 2002 Savannah, Georgia, erected a statue of a modern black family with words by Maya Angelou referring to the Middle Passage: “We lay back to belly in the holds of the slave ships in each other's excrement.” A marker in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, told how “tens of thousands of captives arrived on Sullivan's Island … between 1700 and 1775 .” An extensive...

Law and Art

Law and Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
20,698 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the 1990s. Student publications, dramatic productions, library books, and curriculum were among the frequent targets. The books most commonly attacked have included Mark Twain 's Huckleberry Finn (because of its portrayal of racism and use of the word nigger ), Maya Angelou 's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (because of sexual content and a description of a childhood rape), and almost anything by the celebrated children's author Judy Blume (because of realistic discussions of subjects interesting to teenagers, including menstruation and...

Baraka, Amiri

Baraka, Amiri   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,232 words
Illustration(s):
1

...he brought to the campus as lecturers or adjunct professors were the Somali novelist Nuruddin Farah and Chinua Achebe , author of Things Fall Apart . Baraka retired from Stony Brook University as Professor Emeritus in 1999 . Still productive and challenging, Amiri Baraka, Maya Angelou, Ali Mazruri, Manthia Diawara, and other intellectuals were discussants following the Schomburg Center’s screening of the film The Slave Route: A Global Vision. Shown in October 2008 , the film would commemorate the two-hundred-year anniversary of the U.S. abolition of the...

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