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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...must include the moonshine by which the lovers meet and the wall through whose cranny they speak. As they rehearse, Robin arrives, and mischievously transforms Bottom’s head into that of an ass. Bottom cannot understand why his colleagues flee, assuming they are playing a joke, and sings to keep up his courage. Titania awakens, sees Bottom, and falls in love with him: she appoints four fairies to be his attendants and leads him away to her bower. 3.2 Robin tells a delighted Oberon of Titania’s love for the transformed Bottom, but when Hermia arrives,...

The Comedy of Errors

The Comedy of Errors   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,835 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...have arrived in Ephesus: Antipholus sends his servant to their lodging to lock up his money. Shortly afterwards Dromio of Ephesus arrives and, mistaking this Antipholus for his own master, calls him home to dinner. Antipholus of Syracuse, thinking this is his own Dromio having a joke, grows angry, asking anxiously after his money, and drives Dromio away with blows before setting off to check on his belongings. 2.1 Adriana laments the continuing absence of her husband Antipholus of Ephesus to her unmarried sister Luciana, and after Dromio of Ephesus brings the...

Humor

Humor   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,163 words
Illustration(s):
1

...centuries. They stand apart from folktales, which rely much more heavily on narrative detail. A third argument is that the joke is different from the jest and is the product of modern mass media and its needs for short, detail-free, stripped-down comic products; the joke does not appear until the rise of vaudeville and modern show business in the 1870s. In the latter case, topicality of jokes and the need for constant updating of subject matter while preserving form and structure is seen as specific to the modern idea of the joke. Humor plays important...

Arcimboldo [Arcimboldi], Giuseppe

Arcimboldo [Arcimboldi], Giuseppe (?1527)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,255 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., 1573 ; Paris, Louvre), may best be regarded as serious jokes. This notion is an expression of the Renaissance love for paradox, according to which serious content could be presented in fanciful form. Jokes were long employed to present a serious point entertainingly; this idea among others was discussed in another treatise on laughter by Fontana ( De risu , Vienna, Österreich. Nbib.). Moreover, from antiquity it was thought to be a sign of a ruler's urbanitas that he could take and tell a joke. The wit of Arcimboldo's inventions contin-ued in the...

Steig, William

Steig, William   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,283 words
Illustration(s):
1

...William ( 1907–2003 ), versatile “sublime doodler,” writer, and artist who delineated child and adult experience in varying formats through eight decades of publication. His single-frame joke cartoons (1930s), self-named “symbolic drawings” (primarily 1940s and 1950s), picture storybooks (1960s to 1990s), long narratives for children (1970s), and retrospective picture-book anecdotes and memoirs (1980s to 2000s) expressed the pain, joy, and humor of human existence to general, adult, and child audiences. William Steig . Illustration from The Agony in the...

comedy (Greek), Old, Middle, and New

comedy (Greek), Old, Middle, and New   Reference library

Kenneth James Dover, William Geoffrey Arnott, and Peter George McCarthy Brown

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,412 words
Illustration(s):
2

...had cast her. Lysistrata is in many ways unrealistic. Can an old woman really intimidate a policeman? As for the sex-strike, did not the men own female slaves? Didn’t any of these ‘sex-starved’ men realize their ‘gay’ potential, as they do in many modern jokes about soldiers and sailors, and ancient jokes too, e.g. Eubulus fr. 118? 4. The comic possibilities of the hero’s realization of his fantasy are often exploited by showing, in a succession of short episodes, the consequences of this realization for various professions and types. The end of the play is...

Caricature

Caricature   Reference library

Michèle Hannoosh

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,272 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... “Das Passagen-Werk.” In Gesammelte Schriften , edited by Rolf  Tiedemann , Vol. 5. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982. Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts . French Caricature and the French Revolution, 1789–1799 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Freud, Sigmund . “Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , Vol. 8. London: Hogarth, 1960. Freud, Sigmund . “The Uncanny.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund...

Caricature

Caricature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,229 words
Illustration(s):
1

...catalog, Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, University of California, Los Angeles. Freud, Sigmund . The Uncanny. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , vol. 17, pp. 217–252. London, 1955. Freud, Sigmund . Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious . In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , vol. 8. London, 1960. Hannoosh, Michele . Baudelaire and Caricature: From the Comic to an Art of Modernity . University Park, Pa.,...

Cibber, Colley

Cibber, Colley   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,851 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... His rejection of some of Henry Fielding's early plays did the same. Fielding scored his first hit with The Author's Farce ( 1730 ), which ridicules Cibber as an imperious theatrical tyrant named Marplay. Throughout Fielding's career, he returned to Cibber as a butt of jokes time and again. For the most part, Cibber blithely ignored these provocations and enjoyed the good life he had made for himself as co-patentee of Drury Lane and poet laureate. When he published An Apology for the Life of Mr. Colley Cibber, Comedian in 1740 , his sense of...

Postdramatic Theater

Postdramatic Theater   Reference library

Elinor Fuchs

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...recited with deliberate lack of affect by a single actor sitting upstage. In another notable instance of postdramatic use of a dramatic text, Lee Breuer’s production of Ibsen’s A Dollhouse , as The Mabou Mines Dollhouse ( 2003 ), with its freak show references, wild dances, jokes, direct address to the audience, falling melodrama silks, opera riffs, and live pianist winking at the actors who in turn wink at the audience, fit many criteria of Lehmann’s postdramatic. With characters, plot, a strong sequential story line, and a delivery almost entirely in...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...speakers of English in mind. Owing in large part to English's Great Vowel Shift beginning in the fifteenth century, as well as to other developments, English vowels and diphthongs are quite different from those found in Latin (it is thus that Latin nautae [sailors] can—in a joke that relies on the unrestored pronunciation [the restored pronunciation is “now-tie”]—be pronounced as a homophone of “naughty”). Crucial to Latin is the differentiation, not visible in spelling, between long and short vowels; by the Classical period, most original diphthongs had...

South America, Spanish-Speaking

South America, Spanish-Speaking   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,106 words
Illustration(s):
1

...an oppression that is as commonplace as soccer practice. Argentina's María Elena Walsh is a poet, playwright, and fiction writer. Her popular appeal can be traced to her “absurdist sense of humor,” to her “relaxed and conversational tone, full of asides, appeals, and whispered jokes to the reader” ( Jeffrey Garrett ). Tutú Marambá ( 2000 ) is a collection of short, whimsical stories that show how education can be both fun and practical. In “La escuela de ratones” ( The School for Mice ), characters resemble ordinary schoolchildren, except their lessons are...

Shakespeare, William : The Life

Shakespeare, William : The Life   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
6,202 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ere Burbage came. Then message being brought that Rich[ard III] was at the door, Shakespeare caused return to be made that William the Conqueror was before Rich[ard III]” (Chambers, Facts and Problems , vol. 2, p. 212; quotation modernized). Despite its doubtful veracity, the joke tells us that Shakespeare's name was widely known, apparently on a par with the company's star actor, a rare achievement for a playwright. In 1608 , the King's Men began using a converted refectory at the old Blackfriars monastery as an indoor theater for the winter, keeping the...

Lesbianism

Lesbianism   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Fay Jackson Robinson , with whom she had a relationship from 1930 to 1931 : You did not need to creep into my heart The way you did. You could have smiled And knowing what you did, have kept apart From all my inner soul. But you beguiled Deliberately. (quoted in Hull , 1985) Dunbar-Nelson’s poem “Little Roads” also contains a reference to Robinson. Apart from the evidence of woman-identification in private lives, the issue of lesbianism came up in the stereotypes of black women prevalent in the culture and the media. In the late nineteenth century,...

Lǐ Bái

Lǐ Bái (701–762 ce)   Reference library

Tao Tao LIU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,498 words
Illustration(s):
4

...poems about the experience. Du Fu expressed great admiration for Li and spoke of him most warmly later, as in the poem “Thinking of Li Bai on a Day in Spring” 春日忆李白 ‎: Bai, the poet unrivalled, In fancy’s realm you soar alone. One poem allegedly written by Li Bai titled “A Joke for Du Fu” 戏赠杜甫 ‎, Since we last met, you have become too thin, It must be that you worked too hard upon your poems. (Translation by the author) This is sometimes seen as Li being condescending to the younger poet. This poem, however, is generally believed to be a fake since...

Dù Fǔ

Dù Fǔ (712–770 ce)   Reference library

Tao Tao LIU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,158 words
Illustration(s):
2

...than the other way around. In fact, one poem by Li Bai to Du Fu has been offered as evidence that Li was condescending to the younger poet: Since we last met, you have become too thin, It must be that you worked too hard upon your poems. (Translation by the author) This poem “A joke for Du Fu” 戏赠杜甫 ‎, however, is generally looked at with some skepticism because it appears in a collection of anecdotes about Li and because Li did not have a reputation for using such a condescending tone with his friends. Whatever the nature of their relationship, the fact...

Postmodernism

Postmodernism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz, Sally Banes, and Charles Altieri

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,080 words
Illustration(s):
1

...flow of life itself. Architecture could hardly survive indefinitely on a joking style, and it tended to move in a variety of directions in accord with Venturi’s injunctions: to build contextually in terms of local vernaculars, in terms of the desires of local patrons, the specific needs of cities, towns, and distinctive populations, etc.; to play the game of stylistic juxtaposition and pluralism; and to retain the game of high modernist send-up (turning it into a somewhat stale joke). Architecture also continued modernist stylistics in a number of ways,...

Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
7,670 words
Illustration(s):
1

...most famously called them, “loose baggy monsters.” Nevertheless, Dickens's champions throughout the early twentieth century kept reading his novels, eventually enabling the emergence, in the 1960s, of what Edmund Wilson called “the two Scrooges”: a Dickens no longer a “familiar joke, a favorite dish, a Christmas ritual” but the humiliated boy of the blacking warehouse who became the preeminent social critic of his age. Some mid-century critics, fascinated by “the Dickens world,” traced his fictional characters’ and settings’ originals, to discover whether...

Morrison, Toni

Morrison, Toni (18 February 1931)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,160 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature on 7 October 1993. The Swedish Academy, in bestowing the award, described her work as “characterized by visionary force and poetic import.” Photograph by Timothy Greenfield-Sanders Morrison’s growing years were filled with the jokes, lore, music, language, and myths of African American culture. Her mother sang to the children, her father told them folktales, and they both, she recalled, “told thrillingly terrifying ghost stories.” It was at their knees that she heard the tales of Brer Rabbit and of Africans...

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita   Reference library

Natasha S. Varner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to normalize the performance of indigeneity by non-indigenous actors. María Conesa, a Spanish-born diva on the Mexican género chica circuit, depicted the India Bonita in a bawdy tanda show that premiered about a month into the contest. The show—a tribute peppered with off-color jokes 22 —was so well received that Conesa was ultimately honored alongside María Bibiana in her coronation as the India Bonita. 23 Because indigenous identity had been reduced to a few symbols and characteristics throughout the pageant, it was easier for people like Conesa to...

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