View:

Overview

Johann Gutenberg

Subject: Literature

(c.1396–1468), inventor of printing. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. He printed the Mazarin Bible (q.v.) and ...

Gutenberg [Gensfleisch zur Laden], Johann

Gutenberg [Gensfleisch zur Laden], Johann (c.1394–99)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
484 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Gutenberg seems to have abandoned printing altogether, possibly because of failing eyesight. NDB A. Ruppel : Johannes Gutenberg: Sein Leben und sein Werk (Berlin, 1939/ R Nieuwkoop, 1967) V. Scholderer : Johann Gutenberg: The Inventor of Printing (London, 1963) Johannes Gutenbergs 42-zeilige Bibel , 2 vols (Munich, 1979) [facs] A. Kapr : Johann Gutenberg: The Man and His Invention (Aldershot and Brookfield, 1996) Gutenberg, man of the millennium: from a secret enterprise to the first media revolution (exh. cat. by W. Dobras ; Mainz, Gutenberg...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Book, 1450–1750 (1995) M. Giesecke , Der Buchdruck in der frühen Neuzeit (1991) [ Gutenberg-Gesellschaft and Gutenberg-Museum ,] Blockbücher des Mittelalters (1991) J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible (1987) G. Jäger , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert , pts. 1 and 2, Das Kaiserreich 1871–1918 (2001–3) F. Kapp and J. Goldfriedrich , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels (4 vols, 1886–1913; repr. 1970) A. Kapr , Johann Gutenberg , tr. D. Martin (1996) H.-J. Künast , ‘Getruckt zu Augspurg’: Buchdruck und...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...missionaries had succeeded in printing catechisms in Japanese as early as 1865 . 6 Conclusion As Europeans began to travel to all corners of the earth beginning in the 15 th century, they were determined not only to conquer new lands but also to spread their faith. From *Gutenberg they had learned the power of the printed word, and were determined to use this revolutionary new technology to Christianize Asia. The impact of these efforts varied depending on a number of circumstances. The two most significant variables were the ability to wield control as...

Gutenberg, Johannes

Gutenberg, Johannes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
614 words
Illustration(s):
1

... The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe . Cambridge, 1983. Ing, Janet . Johann Gutenberg and his Bible . New York, 1988. König, Eberhard , ed. Zur Situation der Gutenberg-Forschung . Münster, 1995. Ruppel, Aloys . Johannes Gutenberg: Sein Leben und sein Werk . Berlin, 1939, 1947; reprint, Nieuwkoop, Netherlands, 1967. Venzke, Andreas . Johannes Gutenberg: Der Erfinder des Buchdrucks und seine Zeit . Munich, 2000. Widmann, Hans , ed. Der gegenwärtige Stand der Gutenberg-Forschung . Stuttgart, 1972. Andreas...

Gutenberg Bible

Gutenberg Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,012 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (1996) GW 4201 J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible (1988) E. König , ‘New Perspectives on the History of Mainz Printing’, in Printing the Written Word , ed. S. L. Hindman (1991) — Zur Situation der Gutenberg-Forschung (1995) P. Needham , ‘ Division of Copy in the Gutenberg Bible ’, PBSA 79 (1985), 411–26 — ‘ The Paper Supply of the Gutenberg Bible ’, PBSA 79 (1985), 302–410 W. Schmidt and F. A. Schmidt-Künsemüller , Johannes Gutenbergs zweiundvierzigzeilige Bibel: Kommentarband (1979) P. Schwenke , Festschrift zur Gutenbergfeier (1900) —...

Printing

Printing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
7,003 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1488–1988: A Short History (London, 1988) J. Ing : Johann Gutenberg and his Bible: A Historical Study (New York, 1988) M. Twyman : Early Lithographed Books (London, 1990) S. Sabin : ‘The Great Age of Anhui Printing’, Shadows of Mt Huang: Chinese Painting and Printing of the Anhui School , ed. J. Cahill (Berkeley, CA, 1991) P. T. Daniels and W. Bright : The World's Writing Systems, Pt 13: Imprinting and Printing: Analog and Digital Writing (Oxford and New York, 1996) A. Kapr : Johann Gutenberg: The Man and his Invention (Aldershot and Brookfield,...

Typography

Typography   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,108 words
Illustration(s):
3

...selected and assembled to compose a text. The typographic text is then reproduced by printing: a series of identical images, ‘impressions’, are made from each original type page. 1. Early typography The first typographic book in Europe was a Vulgate Latin Bible printed by Johann Gutenberg around 1455 in Mainz. Within 50 years, an estimated 8 to 20 million books (representing 10,000 to 15,000 titles) had been printed—a number said to exceed that of all the manuscripts written in Europe in the preceding millennium. Typographic printing propagated literature...

Music Industry

Music Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,930 words
Illustration(s):
2

...method known as engraving; or individual lines, notes, notations, and text could be set in movable type following a much more complex variant of the processes believed to have been invented by Johann Gutenberg (1397–1468) . Engraved music tended to be of higher quality than typeset music, but the typesetting method was greatly improved during the 1750s by Johann G. I. Breitkopf (1719–1794) of Leipzig. In the early years of the nineteenth century a new process, stone lithography, reduced music publishing costs. Further cost reductions and quality...

Magnetism

Magnetism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

... ( 1729 , 1744 ), the VOC captain Nicolaas van Ewyk ( 1752 ), the English cartographer Samuel Dunn ( 1775 ), the German-Swiss natural philosopher Johann Heinrich Lambert ( 1777 ), the French astronomer Pierre Charles Le Monnier ( 1778 ), and the English surveyor James Rennell ( 1798 ). The first world chart depicting isoclinics (lines of equal dip) was published by the Swedish physicist Johann Karl Wilcke in 1768 , primarily based upon inclinations observed at sea by the French abbot Nicolas-Louis de la Caille ( 1750–1754 ) and Karl Gustav...

Punishment

Punishment   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
17,081 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Corporal punishment for women was abolished in 1820 . Bridewell Prison. A woman prisoner beats hemp in Bridewell Prison, 1732. “In Bridewell Beating Hemp” by William Hogarth in The Works of William Hogarth: In a Series of Engravings , by John Trusler, 1833, p. 47. Project Gutenberg Birching as a judicial punishment for young offenders was abolished in 1947 , but the Isle of Man caused a good deal of controversy by continuing to birch young offenders into the 1970s. The Pillory and Stocks. The pillory comprised either a post on which were mounted two...

Codes and Codification

Codes and Codification   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
21,033 words
Illustration(s):
1

...et de jurisprudence, 1969. Bonini, Roberto . Crisi del diritto romano, consolidazioni e codificazioni nel Settecento europeo . 2d ed. Bologna, Italy: Pàtron, 1985. Brauneder, Wilhelm . “ Das ABGB für die gesamten Deutschen Erbländer der österreichischen Monarchie von 1811. ” Gutenberg Jahrbuch 62 (1987): 205–254. Caroni, Pio . “(De)Kodifikation: Wenn historische Begriffe ins Schleudern geraten.” In Kodifikation und Dekodifikation des Privatrechts in der heutigen Rechtsentwicklung , edited by Pio Caroni and Karel V. Mály , pp. 31–47. Prague, Czech...

Education

Education   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
20,721 words
Illustration(s):
3

...studies. Houston, Robert Allan . Literacy in Early Modern Europe: Culture and Education, 1500–1800 . London: Longman, 1988. Survey of early modern period, integrating secondary literatures for all European states. Lebrun, Francois , Marc Venard , and Jean Quéniart . “De Gutenberg aux lumières.” In Histoire générale de l'enseignement et de l'éducation en France , edited by Louis Henri-Parias , chap. 2. Paris: Nouvelle Librarie de France, 1981. Best survey of French scholarship for the period. Maynes, Mary Jo . Schooling in Western Europe: A Social...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
24,121 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( 1804–67 ), lineblock and photogravure, dye transfer and photocopy. (a) 15th–18th centuries. (b) 19th–20th centuries. (a) 15th–18th centuries. The earliest European colour printing appeared in the form of coloured woodcut initials in the Mainz Psalter ( 1457 ; Mainz, Gutenberg-Museum) of Johannes Fust ( c. 1400–66 ) and Peter Schöffer ( c. 1425–1502 ). Red and blue are used for the initials, which were probably removed from the forme (body of type set in the chase) before printing, individually coloured and replaced, to be printed with the main body...

Pottery

Pottery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
83,455 words
Illustration(s):
27

...shows a commanding figure with robe, sceptre and eagle, perhaps an early representation of Zeus. Around 680 bc the Passas Painter and the Analatos Painter collaborated in decorating two elaborate cauldrons with high stands for an aristocratic funeral ( Mainz , Johannes Gutenberg-U., 153 and 156) which explored the possibilities of adding white and red to the colour scheme. White was preferred by these early artists and often used for subsidiary details on the latest epa works of the 670s bc . By mpa the Geometric heritage had been forgotten. The...

Block-book

Block-book   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,624 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Stein Col.). The earliest block-books from the heartland of northern Europe date probably from the middle of the 15th century. Around this time Johann Gutenberg in Mainz was perfecting printing by means of movable type that was cast in metal. Thus the uneven alignment of letters in the hand-cut line of text in the block-book was corrected by the typographic page, printed in a press. By the late 1470s Gutenberg’s method gained total ascendancy, and the making of block-books ended, after only about 25 years. Thus the block-book was not the precursor of the...

Pilgrim badge

Pilgrim badge   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,485 words
Illustration(s):
1

...easily smelted tin–lead alloy in moulds of fine-grained stone, which often yielded several badges at every casting. Moulds were sometimes carved by seal-engravers and, more often, by goldsmiths, among them craftsmen as renowned as Albrecht Altdorfer ( c. 1480–1538 ) and Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394 / 9–1468 ). Moulds ranged, however, from works of notable artistic merit (as at Canterbury during the later 14th century (e.g. London, BM) or at Aachen during the 15th) to examples of folk art, at best lively and at worst banal. In the 15th century an...

View: