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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Physical map Political map Delhi Central Delhi Central Delhi Kolkata Mumbai Central Mumbai...

India

India   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The Indian flag was adopted shortly after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. The saffron (orange) represents India's Hindu people, the green stands for the Muslims, and the white symbolizes the peace between them. The central wheel is a Gandhian symbol of...

India

India   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,835 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has also been a boom in consumer electronics and computers. The latter can take advantage of India’s large pool of computer programmers, especially in Bangalore, India’s ‘cybercity’. India’s English-speaking graduates also staff many call centres for companies in the USA and Europe and perform many other ‘outsourced’ functions. Software and computer services now account for around one-quarter of exports. These developments have been transforming the face of India’s cities. TV programming has now been opened up to a multitude of satellite channels. Life in...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,507 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of “Indian Muslim.” At the same time, the Muslims of independent India have neither participated in “Islamist” or militant movements, nor have they organized any national-level Muslim political party. They have supported a range of political parties and participated in the regularly held elections that make the Republic of India the world's largest democracy. Muslims in India. Indian Muslims offer a Friday prayer at Delhi's Jama Masjid (Mosque). Photograph by Manish Swarup / AP Images India in the Eighteenth Century. The eighteenth century is increasingly...

India’s Growth Turnaround

India’s Growth Turnaround   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,852 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be attributed to some combination of a common shift in s t India and state-wise differences in the α i . A differential impact of the all-India shock might be attributed to different values of α i ; with non-V states, by implication, having α i values extremely close to zero, thus closing off any convergence response. Agenda for Future Research Research on India’s growth turnaround needs to move beyond its empiricist nature and towards a theoretical model of India’s growth pattern. Given India’s economic planning history and the empirical evidence it would...

Dance of Shiva

Dance of Shiva   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...by the violent turnings of the tandava . In his dance, Shiva- Nataraja holds various symbolic objects. In his top right hand is the hourglass drum connoting the rhythm of the dance of life, which is sound, the means by which understanding is transmitted. Sound is connected in India to the essential element ether, out of which come air, fire, water, and earth, the necessary elements for creation. In the upper left hand the dancer holds fire, the agent of the destruction of creation in the sacrifice and in the cosmic cycle. The lower right hand gives the...

Bhutan

Bhutan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
720 words
Illustration(s):
2

...concept of gross national happiness as a guide to successful government. His party lost the 2013 elections to the People’s Democratic Party, led by Tshering Tobgay, who was more focused on Bhutan’s debt and social problems, as well as improving relations with India. In 2017 troops from China and India threatened each other on the Doklam Plateau, a small area of Bhutan that China claimed. At one point seen as the most serious border dispute between the two major powers for many years, the resolute diplomacy of Bhutan saw the tension ease after around two...

nagas

nagas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...Nagas (or the feminine Naginis ) are serpent figures who play a role in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Their source seems to lie in the pre- Aryan fertility cults of India. The nagas reside within the earth, in an aquatic underworld. They are personifications of terrestrial waters as well as door and gate guardians. They are beings of great power who protect the underworld and bestow fertility and wealth on the areas of the world with which they are individually associated, whether that area is a field, a place of worship, or even a whole...

Bodhisattva

Bodhisattva   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...two meanings. Literally, a bodhisattva is a person who is seeking enlightenment ( bodhi ). In early, Pali Buddhism, Buddhism contained in the Pali as opposed to Sanskrit texts—for example, Theravada and other forms of Hinayana Buddhism , the so-called small vehicle of India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and Laos—the word refers to particular beings, saints ( arhat ) in past eons who were on the path to full enlightenment or nirvana . It refers especially to the pre-enlightenment stages of Gautama Buddha , the Buddha Sakyamuni, who is commonly called...

Durga

Durga   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...victory over evil in many parts of the Hindu world. A fifteenth-century bronze statue of Durga, the warrior goddess who was formed from the very anger of Vishnu and Shiva to save the universe. Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, New York. Coll. Nappier, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, ...

Fire

Fire   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...their people. Maui in Polynesia is one of many trickster –culture heroes who stole fire. In addition, there are fire gods in many cultures who serve as the centers of the worship of this mysteriously dangerous and useful phenomenon. Asha in Iran and Agni in Vedic India are such deities. The ancient Aryans all worshipped fire, and fire as light has been important in the symbology of many religions, including Zoroastrianism , Christianity , and Judaism . Prometheus is shown stealing fire from Mount Olympus in this seventeenth-century painting...

Vishnu Purana

Vishnu Purana   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...creation, life, and the destruction that leads to new life. The Hindu god Vishnu plays his flute beneath the sacred kadamba tree in an eighteenth-century illustration from the Hindu text Gitagovinda. Werner Forman/ Art Resource, New York. Punjab Government Museum, Simla, Punjab, ...

British Indian Ocean Territory

British Indian Ocean Territory   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
391 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and 1,500 kilometres south of India. The largest of the islands is Diego Garcia, which accounts for over two-thirds of the landmass. All the islands are low-lying, with very little land more than 2 metres above sea level. The waters around the islands contain some of the world’s healthiest coral reefs, its largest coral atoll, and some of its cleanest sea water. The sea around the Chagos archipelago was declared a marine reserve in 2010 . Colonized by the French and the British, indentured labourers from India were brought here to work the small...

Maldives

Maldives   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
822 words
Illustration(s):
2

...global warming could swamp them. In 2004 , the Asian tsunami washed across the islands, though only killing eighty-two people. The people Culturally, the Maldives is a blend of influences from India, Sri Lanka, Arabic countries, and elsewhere. All Maldivians speak the national language, Divehi, and are Muslims. In addition, migrant workers from Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka make up more than one-quarter of the labour force, providing professionals such as teachers, as well as labourers. By South Asian standards, Maldivians are healthy and well off, but rapid...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the eight million Muslims who fled from India in 1947 at the time of partition—most of whom are in the urban areas of Sindh and particularly Karachi, Pakistan’s largest city, with a population of 16.6 million. Faced with limited opportunities at home, millions of Pakistanis have headed overseas, chiefly to the Gulf states. They send home remittances worth around $17 billion per year, 7 per cent of GDP. Almost all Pakistanis are Muslims. Pakistan was created out of the partition of British India specifically to provide a state for the Muslim...

Avalokiteshvara

Avalokiteshvara   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...Perhaps the most popular figure in Mahayana Buddhism , Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva of compassion who originated in northern India. He is concerned especially with the needs of those who suffer. With his eleven heads, thousand eyes, and thousand arms, he is all-knowing, all-seeing, and able to respond simultaneously to suffering everywhere. It can be said that this bodhisattva is a de facto deification of the compassionate aspect of the Buddha himself. As such, he is, in fact, worshipped. Avalokiteshvara has close associations with the...

Descent to the underworld

Descent to the underworld   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...journey” or “dark night of the soul,” which points to the fact that the self, to be whole, must rule the inner world. The motif of the descent to the underworld is perhaps not as prevalent in the Eastern world as in the Western. It is, nevertheless, clearly present there. In India there is the popular story of the beautiful Savitri , who follows Yama , the Vedic god of death, to the gates of the underworld and convinces him to release her husband Satyavan from death. In The Upanishads the story is told of the young brahman Naciketas, who in the...

Kali

Kali   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...monster Raktabija by sucking him dry of his ever-spawning blood. A fifteenth-century bronze sculpture of the terrifying four-armed Indian goddess Kali shows her wielding various instruments of destruction. Nimatallah/ Art Resource, New York. Indian Museum, Calcutta, West Bengal, ...

Táng Dynasty

Táng Dynasty (618–907 ce)   Reference library

Kerry Brown

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...‎, the only woman to rule China as an emperor in her own name. High-Tang poetry, represented by Lǐ Bái 李白 ‎ and Dù Fǔ 杜甫 ‎, has become one of the most recognizable literary achievements in Chinese history. Buddhism ( Fójiào 佛教 ‎), originally a foreign religion introduced from India, gained popularity during the Tang. The dynasty was disrupted by a mass uprising, the Ān Lùshān Rebellion (Ānshǐ zhīluàn 安史之乱 ‎). The uprising was disastrous on many levels, destroying millions of lives and leaving China’s land and resources in ruins. After its suppression, the...

Nepal

Nepal   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,316 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Kathmandu Valley. The band along the southern border with India has forested lower slopes that descend to the fertile Terai plain. The people Nepal’s people comprise more than 120 ethnic and caste groups that can be considered in two sets. The first and smaller, the Tibeto-Nepalese, are the result of immigration from Tibet. They are found in the bleak high mountain areas as well as in the middle band, and are usually Buddhist. The larger set, of Indo-Aryan ancestry, have immigrated from India and elsewhere, and are largely Hindu and rigidly stratified...

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