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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Physical map Political map Delhi Central Delhi Central Delhi Kolkata Mumbai Central Mumbai...

India

India   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The Indian flag was adopted shortly after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. The saffron (orange) represents India's Hindu people, the green stands for the Muslims, and the white symbolizes the peace between them. The central wheel is a Gandhian symbol of...

India

India   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,835 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has also been a boom in consumer electronics and computers. The latter can take advantage of India’s large pool of computer programmers, especially in Bangalore, India’s ‘cybercity’. India’s English-speaking graduates also staff many call centres for companies in the USA and Europe and perform many other ‘outsourced’ functions. Software and computer services now account for around one-quarter of exports. These developments have been transforming the face of India’s cities. TV programming has now been opened up to a multitude of satellite channels. Life in...

India

India   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Jul 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,324 words
Illustration(s):
4

...5th centuries ad N India flourished under the Gupta dynasty . The 7th century is the classical period of India's history. Islam was introduced from about ad 1000 . In 1192 , the Delhi Sultanate became India's first Muslim kingdom. In 1526 , Babur founded the Mogul empire . In the 17th century, India became a centre of Islamic art and architecture under Shah Jahan (who built the Taj Mahal ) and Aurangzeb . In the 17th century, the Maratha successfully resisted European imperial ambitions in the guise of the East India Company . European...

Bhutan

Bhutan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
720 words
Illustration(s):
2

...concept of gross national happiness as a guide to successful government. His party lost the 2013 elections to the People’s Democratic Party, led by Tshering Tobgay, who was more focused on Bhutan’s debt and social problems, as well as improving relations with India. In 2017 troops from China and India threatened each other on the Doklam Plateau, a small area of Bhutan that China claimed. At one point seen as the most serious border dispute between the two major powers for many years, the resolute diplomacy of Bhutan saw the tension ease after around two...

British Indian Ocean Territory

British Indian Ocean Territory   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
391 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and 1,500 kilometres south of India. The largest of the islands is Diego Garcia, which accounts for over two-thirds of the landmass. All the islands are low-lying, with very little land more than 2 metres above sea level. The waters around the islands contain some of the world’s healthiest coral reefs, its largest coral atoll, and some of its cleanest sea water. The sea around the Chagos archipelago was declared a marine reserve in 2010 . Colonized by the French and the British, indentured labourers from India were brought here to work the small...

Maldives

Maldives   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
822 words
Illustration(s):
2

...global warming could swamp them. In 2004 , the Asian tsunami washed across the islands, though only killing eighty-two people. The people Culturally, the Maldives is a blend of influences from India, Sri Lanka, Arabic countries, and elsewhere. All Maldivians speak the national language, Divehi, and are Muslims. In addition, migrant workers from Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka make up more than one-quarter of the labour force, providing professionals such as teachers, as well as labourers. By South Asian standards, Maldivians are healthy and well off, but rapid...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the eight million Muslims who fled from India in 1947 at the time of partition—most of whom are in the urban areas of Sindh and particularly Karachi, Pakistan’s largest city, with a population of 16.6 million. Faced with limited opportunities at home, millions of Pakistanis have headed overseas, chiefly to the Gulf states. They send home remittances worth around $17 billion per year, 7 per cent of GDP. Almost all Pakistanis are Muslims. Pakistan was created out of the partition of British India specifically to provide a state for the Muslim...

Nepal

Nepal   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,316 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Kathmandu Valley. The band along the southern border with India has forested lower slopes that descend to the fertile Terai plain. The people Nepal’s people comprise more than 120 ethnic and caste groups that can be considered in two sets. The first and smaller, the Tibeto-Nepalese, are the result of immigration from Tibet. They are found in the bleak high mountain areas as well as in the middle band, and are usually Buddhist. The larger set, of Indo-Aryan ancestry, have immigrated from India and elsewhere, and are largely Hindu and rigidly stratified...

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,184 words
Illustration(s):
2

...it also refines oil for its own use and for export. Its gas exports depend on appropriate pipelines. In 2009 it opened the first gas pipeline to China, the following year increased supplies to Iran, and in 2014 agreed in principle to supply gas to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India, so loosening the hold of Russia. Indeed, quantities supplied to Russia declined, not least because the price was too high, and at the start of 2016 , Russia stopped buying Turkmen gas. Gas exports amount to around three-quarters of total exports and over a third of GDP. However,...

Guyana

Guyana   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
836 words
Illustration(s):
2

...there are mountains in the west along the borders with Venezuela and Brazil. The country’s ethnic mix reflects its colonial history. Most of today’s Guyanese, concentrated along the coast, are descendants of slaves from Africa and subsequent indentured labourers from India who came to work on coastal sugar cane plantations. The surviving Amerindians are now in scattered communities along the riverbanks. Guyana has one of the highest rates of emigration in the world, most recently of skilled labour to the USA and Canada. While the resulting...

Suriname

Suriname   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
875 words
Illustration(s):
2

...rainforests. The people Suriname’s complex ethnic mix reflects its colonial history. Today’s Creole population are descendants of African slaves whom the Dutch brought to work on the sugar and coffee plantations. They were subsequently replaced by indentured workers from India and from the then Dutch colony of Java—whose descendants now make up the majority of the population. Others include the Marons (Bosnegers), descendants of escaped slaves, and Amerindians. The links with the Netherlands have remained strong. There are estimated to be around 350,000...

Bangladesh

Bangladesh   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,822 words
Illustration(s):
2

...188 Gender Equality Index rank: 119 out of 159 Environmental Performance Indicator rank: 173 out of 180 The country Bangladesh consists of a vast alluvial plain. The waters of two of the subcontinent’s largest rivers, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, flow in from India to deposit billions of tonnes of silt each year across this delta before emerging sluggishly into the Bay of Bengal. The only higher areas are the Chittagong Hill Tracts on the eastern border with Myanmar. The annual flooding is a welcome event. Even in a normal rainy season, 20 per...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,365 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Since then, it has cast its net wider, seeking the people with the highest skills. This, combined with refugee flows, has tilted the balance in favour of Asia. In recent years there have been an average of 28,000 immigrants per year from New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and India, with 22,000 coming from China. In 2015 net migration amounted to 196,000 people, with 473,000 arrivals and 277,000 people leaving, mainly Australians, New Zealanders, and overseas students who had completed their studies. Australia has an increasingly diverse population, but its...

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,103 words
Illustration(s):
2

...provide most export income. Cashew nut trees can survive even on very poor land and require little or no cultivation. Production has been rising but Guinea-Bissau has earned less than it could from this. It has few facilities for processing, so most of the nuts are exported to India and from there are sold around the world. There are other cash crops such as groundnuts and mangoes with export potential. One of the obstacles to better agricultural performance is land tenure or, more precisely, deciding who owns what. Most food is produced by the 90,000 small villages...

Rwanda

Rwanda   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,367 words
Illustration(s):
2

...being ineligible (one, Diane Rwigara, was later charged with forgery and inciting insurrection and her family’s extensive business assets confiscated). Kagame’s global standing saw visits in July 2018 from both President Xi Jinping of China and Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India(and agree to development loans). See also Country data table http://www.gov.rw/home/ Government of Rwanda official site http://www.newtimes.co.rw/ New Times newspaper site ...

Kuwait

Kuwait   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,128 words
Illustration(s):
2

...done by immigrants. In 2015 , Kuwaitis made up only 31 per cent of the population and almost all those in work chose the government or public corporations. Only 5 per cent of the private sector workforce is Kuwaiti—the rest being immigrant workers. The largest numbers are from India, Egypt, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Nepal, Jordan, and Lebanon. There is evidence that some migrant workers undertaking the most menial tasks are exploited by their sponsoring employers and various labour reforms are under way. The economy Kuwait depends on oil...

Brazil

Brazil   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,013 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Brazil’s national debt retained a stranglehold on public finances. Hugely popular, Lula was re-elected in 2006 . Under Lula’s watch Brazil strengthened both its democracy and its economy and became a major global force, one of the ‘BRIC’ countries, bracketed with Russia, India, and China. Lula rejected the idea of a constitutional change that would enable him to seek a third term. The Workers’ Party chose Dilma Rousseff as his successor. In 2010 she was elected president and parties in coalition with the Workers’ Party achieved a majority in the National...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,996 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and increasing desertification of traditional Fulani pastures, a result of global warming. Despite its potential wealth, Nigeria has been slipping backwards. In 2018, one international report suggested that there were now more people in extreme poverty in Nigeria than in India, highlighting the increasingly unequal wealth distribution in the country. It has been estimated that over a half of the population were living below the poverty line and approaching a third of all under five year-olds were malnourished. The education system is in poor shape and...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,994 words
Illustration(s):
2

...citizens, especially from Poland, came to the UK, filling a labour shortage, particularly for semi-skilled jobs. Over 12 per cent of the UK population is foreign born, with one-third coming from within the EU and two-thirds from outside the EU. The largest numbers are from India (772,000), Poland (700,000), Pakistan (524,000), and Ireland (384,000). Ethnic minorities can be exposed to racism and are poorer than average. The British still benefit from the egalitarian welfare state created after the Second World War, though health and education services have...

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