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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Yemen

Yemen   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,358 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(e.g., Commiphora myrrha , found as far west as Shabwa today) required for religious services throughout the ancient Near East and the Mediterranean. Volcanic glass, carnelian, and agate are found in Yemen; other stones and aromatics were imported (for reexport) from Africa and India. Although trade connections with the rest of the Near East have not been demonstrated before the tenth century bce , the Egyptians may have regarded the land of Punt (a source of semiprecious stones and aromatics, with which they had been trading since the third millennium) as...

Alexandrian Empire

Alexandrian Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Isles to India. [See Coins .] In spite of economic growth in the Hellenistic Age, war still provided the usual means of expanding royal wealth. Taxes, tolls, and tribute seldom met the exorbitant needs of the kings, for whom conspicuous consumption on a grand scale was a hallmark of Hellenistic monarchy. If not by trade, then by conquest, these kings sought luxury goods to put on parade. On one famous occasion, Ptolemy II (285/82–246) marched through Alexandria an astounding display of prestige items, including exotic animals from India, Ethiopia, and...

Adulis

Adulis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
827 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., important ancient coastal trading center in Ethiopia (now in Eritrea; 15°17′ N, 39°40′ E). Located on the deep Gulf of Zula (Annesley Bay), Adulis was the Red Sea port of ancient Axum. This was where Roman traders transshipped goods to vessels headed for southern India. From Adulis, ivory collected in northern Ethiopia was shipped to the eastern Mediterranean. Although the site was occupied before the Aksumite period, the period of its activity as a trading center was from the first through the eighth century ce . The first extensive note about Adulis...

Qal῾at Al-Bahrain

Qal῾at Al-Bahrain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
950 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a high, grooved boss and display animals and other nonhuman motifs. Nearly a dozen of the earliest seals also bear short Harappan inscriptions together with a humped bull (zebu) shown in profile. The iconography suggests that an Indian element in the population, or trade with India, played an important role at the site in the late third millennium. In about 2000 bce , a 3.5-meter-thick stone wall with a rubble core was built around the settlement. A system of lanes and streets, with well-planned houses, was exposed in the Danish excavation of levels dating...

Archaeobotany: Methods

Archaeobotany: Methods   Reference library

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,900 words
Illustration(s):
4

...hulls, which require dehusking. It was this form that spread first throughout Africa and across the seas to India, perhaps as early as 4,000 years ago. 73 Other races (e.g., caudatum, guinea, and durra) evolved later and in parallel developed free-threshing forms and forms with larger grains and denser ears, making for more productive forms and forms requiring fewer labor-intensive crop-processing steps. 74 The presence in India of the races, bicolor, caudatum, and guinea, is due to at least three separate introductions from Africa. 75 The...

Sasanians

Sasanians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,143 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with Emperor Justinian, and allying with the new Turkish groups in Transoxiana, Khusrau won dramatically over the Huns. The truce with Justinian was supposed to last fifty years. Sasanian aggression, however, was transferred to the Red Sea, where Byzantine rivalry for trade with India persuaded them to interfere in southern Arabia. In about 575 , the Sasanians took Yemen as a province. Military professionalism impacted upon state security, however. A jealous Hormizd IV ( 579–590 ) forced General Bahram Chubin to become a revolutionary who exiled the king, as...

Dilmun

Dilmun   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,312 words
Illustration(s):
1

...its role as a commercial center in international trade, however, that made Dilmun famous—although the goods it sold to Mesopotamian merchants were not local products but originated farther east. Copper from the Oman peninsula, tin from Afghanistan (?), exotic woods and ivory from India were purchased by Dilmunite merchants and then reexported to cities like Ur, Lagash, and Mari. Throughout most of the third, second and first millennia bce , Dilmun was Babylonia's most important southern source of copper, timber, and exotic goods; and at Ur, “Dilmun merchants”...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,939 words
Illustration(s):
1

...advances in translations of Akkadian and Sumerian texts. Kemp, Barry J. “ The Amarna Workmen's Village. ” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 73 (1987): 21–50. See especially pages 36–41, for the evidence for farming. Moynihan, Elizabeth . Paradise as a Garden: In Persia and Mughal India . New York, 1979. Readable, well-illustrated work with important chapters on pre-Islamic gardens. Nielsen, Inge . Hellenistic Palaces: Tradition and Renewal . Aarhus, 1994. Peterman, Glen L. “ Conservation of the Petra Papyri. ” Biblical Archaeologist 57 (1994): 242–243....

Babylon

Babylon   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,315 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Babylonian tower, he debated between the ruins of Babel and Borsippa. A resident of the East India Company, Hartford Jones Bridge, who visited Babylon briefly, succeeded in obtaining several bricks and the large stone inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II that became known as the East India House inscription. Claudius James Rich , who knew Near Eastern languages and was interested in the cultures of antiquity, was in Baghdad as a resident of the East India Company. Beginning In 1811 , he undertook the first systematic investigation of the area of the...

῾Aqaba

῾Aqaba   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,987 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Eilat and Ezion-Geber were presumably also located somewhere in the vicinity. Situated at the north end of the Gulf of ῾Aqaba, on an arm of the Red Sea, ῾Aqaba lies at the nexus of important trade routes. The port serviced sea traffic with Egypt, South Arabia, Africa, and India. Several land routes intersected at ῾Aqaba, including roads northeast through Transjordan to Syria, north via Wadi ῾Arabah to the Dead Sea and Jordan Valley, northwest via the Negev to Gaza on the Mediterranean, west across Sinai to Egypt, and southeast into the Arabian Peninsula....

Indo-European Languages

Indo-European Languages   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,692 words
Illustration(s):
1

...between two or three member languages throughout recorded history, but became especially vivid and more comprehensive in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A decisive event was an observation in a speech made by William Jones in 1796 , then chief justice in British India, as well as a Persianist and Sanskritist. He postulated that not only Persian and Sanskrit, but also Greek, Latin, Germanic, and Celtic must go back to a common root and must therefore be members of the same family. [See Latin .] The first major breakthroughs in the systematic...

Textiles

Textiles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,975 words
Illustration(s):
2

...hairy, not woolly, sheep and to manufacture linen chiefly. Clipped goat hair was used in both regions for coarse cloth like sacking. [See Sheep and Goats .] Hemp ( Cannabis Sativa ), used in northern and central Eurasia since at least 5000 bce , and cotton, domesticated in India before 3000 bce , seem not to have reached Mesopotamia until just after 1000 bce and the Aegean in the fifth and sixth centuries bce . Silk, domesticated in China in the third millennium, is known to have reached Europe by about 650 bce and may have filtered into the Near...

Roman Empire

Roman Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,305 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Wadi el-Mujib attest. [See Transportation ; Roads .] Trade and Industry. The remarkable sea captain's handbook, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea ( c. 40–70 ce ), provides details of trade between Egypt and India, which is confirmed by finds of Roman artifacts, including terra sigillata (at Arikamedu in Tamil Nadu) and coins (in southern India and Sri Lanka). Trade provided a wider range of items from distant points within the empire and beyond. Thus amphorae attest to wine imports from the Aegean, fine red-gloss terra sigillata to trade with Gaul and...

Synagogue Inscriptions

Synagogue Inscriptions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,191 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in Crimea reads Remembered for good and may their memory be for good … All of this holy community, the elders and the youths. He who knows their names will write them in the book of life with the righteous [ones].… Similarly, toward the close of the Kaddish from Cochin, India, another parallel to the Jericho inscription is found: “All of the house of Israel is interconnected (ḥăbērîm), amen.…” Aramaic, Hebrew, and semiticized Greek inscriptions are generally composed in the second person, which parallels liturgical forms. Nonsemiticized Greek...

Uruk-Warka

Uruk-Warka   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,830 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cultic and prophetic texts, together with numerous administrative documents. [See Libraries and Archives .] Constructing these buildings certainly consumed enormous sums: the city's opulence can only be explained as a consequence of its position on a trade route going from India through the Persian Gulf to Greece. After the Parthians conquered Mesopotamia, trade was blocked by an “Iron Curtain,” and Uruk sank into oblivion despite the evidence of the presence of some wealthy citizens with richly furnished villas. [See Villas .] Babylonian culture died...

Wall Paintings

Wall Paintings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,049 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the rule of the Sasanian Persian dynasty that succeeded the Parthians ( 249–651 ce ), a hellenized Iranian art remained broadly current across much of the Near East and was stimulated periodically by contacts with central Asiatic art, and even from the hellenized art of northern India. Sasanian wall painting has only rarely been preserved, but Roman literary sources attest to its importance in palatial decoration. [See Sasanians .] The third–fourth-century examples from Susa are still stylistically related to those from Kuh-i-Khwaja, just as they recall the...

Writing Materials

Writing Materials   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cooked in conflagrations) in antiquity than is generally thought. Jones has also noted that at least some tablets have a mud core with a clay veneer to receive an inscription; and that when such a veneer chips off, pieces can be mistaken for fragments of clay envelopes. The India House Inscription (a very large slab inscribed on five sides recovered from Babylon at the beginning of the nineteenth century, one of the key documents used in the decipherment of cuneiform) seems to be hollow. [See Babylon .] The wedge-shaped impressions that comprise...

Maskhuta, Tell El-

Maskhuta, Tell El-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,195 words
Illustration(s):
3

...is clear that Tell el-Maskhuta was either a major point of shipment for some heavy, high-volume capacity (e.g., wheat), or a turnaround spot for ships because only a few ships were needed for continuing on into the Red Sea (some choice Greek wines made the journey all the way to India). Alternatively, it is possible that cargoes were deliberately lightened for the southbound leg of the trip, with the transshipment of relatively low-bulk, high-value cargoes to fast triremes at the head of the Red Sea for better handling of the combined northern Red Sea problems...

Palmyra

Palmyra   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,710 words
Illustration(s):
4

...privileged position between Rome and Parthia. Both, it seems, were interested in Palmyra. In 41 bce , Marcus Antonius undertook a futile push toward the city. The Palmyrenes had, as Appian reports (5.9), gained a key trade and political position. They procured exotic goods from India, Arabia, and Persia and then traded them to the Romans. When, precisely, Palmyra was incorporated into the Roman state is a contested issue, but it may have occurred under Tiberius ( 14–37 ce ). In the second half of the first century ce , Palmyra was occupied by a Roman...

Genetics and Southern African History

Genetics and Southern African History   Reference library

Francesco Montinaro and Cristian Capelli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,492 words
Illustration(s):
6

...show greatly reduced European ancestry in the X chromosome markers, which instead is enriched by Indonesian ancestry. 58 Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis on the same data set confirmed male/female imbalance contributions for Europeans (higher male contribution), and Khoe-San and India (higher female contribution). 59 The Baster population has been reported to have the largest Khoe-San maternal and the largest European paternal contributions across the Colored communities (both over 90 percent). At the genome level, the average European ancestry in the Basters is...

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