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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Physical map Political map Delhi Central Delhi Central Delhi Kolkata Mumbai Central Mumbai...

India

India   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The Indian flag was adopted shortly after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. The saffron (orange) represents India's Hindu people, the green stands for the Muslims, and the white symbolizes the peace between them. The central wheel is a Gandhian symbol of...

India

India   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
950 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trade with India being extended eastwards by Indian traders. Nevertheless, Greek geographers always underrated the extent of India’s southward projection and exaggerated the size of Sri Lanka. From c . ad 200 direct Graeco-Roman trade declined, communications with India passed into the hands of intermediaries (Arabians, Axumites, Sasanid Persians), and India again became a land of fable to the Mediterranean world. The founders of Christian settlements in India came largely from Persia. Eric Herbert Warmington / Romila Thapar India Marble Roman...

India

India   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Jul 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,324 words
Illustration(s):
4

...5th centuries ad N India flourished under the Gupta dynasty . The 7th century is the classical period of India's history. Islam was introduced from about ad 1000 . In 1192 , the Delhi Sultanate became India's first Muslim kingdom. In 1526 , Babur founded the Mogul empire . In the 17th century, India became a centre of Islamic art and architecture under Shah Jahan (who built the Taj Mahal ) and Aurangzeb . In the 17th century, the Maratha successfully resisted European imperial ambitions in the guise of the East India Company . European...

India

India   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,835 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has also been a boom in consumer electronics and computers. The latter can take advantage of India’s large pool of computer programmers, especially in Bangalore, India’s ‘cybercity’. India’s English-speaking graduates also staff many call centres for companies in the USA and Europe and perform many other ‘outsourced’ functions. Software and computer services now account for around one-quarter of exports. These developments have been transforming the face of India’s cities. TV programming has now been opened up to a multitude of satellite channels. Life in...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were poised to take advantage of the power vacuum and the renewal of internecine struggle. Victorious over its French rival, the English East India Company laid the basis in the 18th century for the subsequent hegemony of the British Raj . Following the Indian Mutiny control of India passed, via The Act for the Better Government of India ( 1858 ) from the English East India Company to the British Crown. The India Acts of the late 19th and early 20th century granted greater Indian involvement in government. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885 ,...

India

India   Reference library

Judith Brown

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,182 words
Illustration(s):
3

...was that India, compared with its contribution in the earlier years of the century, had declined in economic value to the UK; and Britain was for the first time India's debtor rather than creditor as a result of the war effort and India's vast sterling balances. In such a situation there could be no reassertion of empire. The end of the Raj in India was also highly significant for the future of Britain's relations with its other colonies and its attempts to construct patterns of world-wide defence. The protection of India and routes to India had been at...

India

India   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,820 words
Illustration(s):
5

...study on the princely states in colonial India. Dutt, V. P. India's Foreign Policy . New Delhi, India: Vikas, 1984. Provides a broad overview of Indian foreign policy since independence up to the Indira Gandhi era. Fisher, Michael H. , ed. The Politics of the British Annexation of India, 1757–1857 . Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1993. An excellent introduction, with primary sources, on the process of British conquest of India. Forbes, Geraldine . Women in Modern India . The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...partition of India, completed on 15 August 1947 , when India and Pakistan became independent. The Constitution of India (1947–1960s) Independence had been negotiated largely by Gandhi 's lieutenant, Nehru , who came to dominate Indian affairs until his death in 1964 , and even afterwards through the leadership of his daughter and his grandson respectively. His able ministers, especially Patel and Ambedkar , had drafted a Constitution by 1950 , which integrated 562 formerly autonomous princely states into the Union of India. India became a...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,312 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Order: State, Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India . New Delhi, 1999. Kulke, Hermann . The State in India, 1000–1700 . Delhi, 1995. Liu Xinru . Ancient India and Ancient China: Trade and Religious Exchanges, AD 1–600 . Delhi, 1994. Ludden, David . An Agrarian History of South Asia. In The New Cambridge History of India , vol. 4. Cambridge, 1999. McCrindle, John Watson . The Commerce and Navigation of the Erythraean Sea . Amsterdam, 1973. Randhawa, M. S. A History of Agriculture in India . 4 vols. Delhi, 1986. Ray, Himanshu P. The Winds of...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . A secular, multiparty federal republic in South Asia, covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometers, India extends from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean, and from the Rajasthan desert to the Ganges delta and rain forests. This geographical diversity is reflected in its multiethnic, multicultural population of more than one billion people. The government recognizes eighteen major languages (including English) and 1,652 dialects. India . Front cover for Tales of Arjuna, in the series Amar Chitra Katha: The Glorious Heritage of India (Bangalore: ...

India

India   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1949 , with Pakistan incorporating one third of Kashmir and India two thirds. India's new territory became the states of Jammu and Kashmir with internal autonomy. In 1952–1954 , France peacefully yielded to India the five colonies of former French India, Pondicherry, Karikal, Mahe, Yanaon, and Chandernagor. Ethnic violence accompanied several Sikh uprisings in the 1980s—the former British protectorate of Sikkim had become a protectorate of India in 1950 and was absorbed into India in 1974 . Violence also broke out in the Pungab in 1988 and Assam in ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,507 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of “Indian Muslim.” At the same time, the Muslims of independent India have neither participated in “Islamist” or militant movements, nor have they organized any national-level Muslim political party. They have supported a range of political parties and participated in the regularly held elections that make the Republic of India the world's largest democracy. Muslims in India. Indian Muslims offer a Friday prayer at Delhi's Jama Masjid (Mosque). Photograph by Manish Swarup / AP Images India in the Eighteenth Century. The eighteenth century is increasingly...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
7,586 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in South Asia . New Delhi, India: Kali for Women, 1986. Bhatt, Ela R. “ Organising for Change. ” In Women Who Dared , edited by Ritu Menon , pp. 77–93. New Delhi, India: National Book Trust, 2002. Dhanda, Meena . Reservations for Women . New Delhi, India: Women Unlimited, forthcoming. Engineer, Asghar Ali , ed. The Shah Bano Controversy . Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman, 1987. Gandhi, Nandita , and Nandita Shah . The Issues at Stake: Theory and Practice in the Contemporary Women's Movement in India . New Delhi, India: Kali for Women, 1992. Gandhi,...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
516 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [Arabic, al-Hind ] The earliest Arab incursions into India were in Sind in the early 8th century. Under the early *Abbasids , mainly through the patronage of the Barmakid family, Indian sciences were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. The rise of the *Ghaznavid dynasty facilitated major incursions into India , lasting some two centuries. It was with the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud (r. 998–1030 ) that the incursions penetrated as far as western India , into southern Kashmir, and even to Benares. However, since there were no permanent occupations of...

India’s Growth Turnaround

India’s Growth Turnaround   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,852 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be attributed to some combination of a common shift in s t India and state-wise differences in the α i . A differential impact of the all-India shock might be attributed to different values of α i ; with non-V states, by implication, having α i values extremely close to zero, thus closing off any convergence response. Agenda for Future Research Research on India’s growth turnaround needs to move beyond its empiricist nature and towards a theoretical model of India’s growth pattern. Given India’s economic planning history and the empirical evidence it would...

India, Republic of

India, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,051 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mu῾izz al-Din returned to India in 1194 and led his armies down the Ganga, conquering Kannauj and Varanasi. Within a few years the whole of north India had been conquered. When Mu῾izz al-Din, who had succeeded his brother on the Ghurid throne, was murdered, his generals in India established their independence. Delhi’s strategic as well as historical advantages made it the natural capital of north India, provided that its possessor was strong enough to maintain power over the fissiparous provinces. By the mid-13th century most of India north of the Vindhya had...

East India Companies

East India Companies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
7,237 words
Illustration(s):
1

...India Companies This entry contains four subentries: An Overview , Dutch East India Company , English East India Company , French East India Company An Overview East India companies were the main channel through which trade passed between Europe and Asia from the seventeenth until the early nineteenth century. From the later eighteenth century, the British company was also to become an imperial power, ruling millions of Asian subjects. Trading with Asia Europe had traded with Asia through the Middle East for many centuries before the age of the East...

Intergroup Communication: India

Intergroup Communication: India   Reference library

Tej K. Bhatia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Intergroup Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,911 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Communication: India India: A Glance India is a multicultural, multilingual, and multiethnic country. Diversity and unity have been two of India’s defining features and a permanent hallmark since the arrival of Aryans in ancient times (see Basham, 1954 ); they are integral parts of India’s 5,000-year history, its unique view of human existence, and its spirituality, as manifested in Hinduism and other Indic religions, such as Buddhism and Sikhism. India has a remarkable ability to survive, evolve, and nurture foreign traditions, races, and...

Dutch East India Company

Dutch East India Company   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
264 words
Illustration(s):
1

...headquarters. It ousted the Portuguese from Ceylon, set up trading posts in India, Persia, and Nagasaki, and made the Cape of Good Hope a base for Dutch ships en route to and from the East. In 1799 it was liquidated, its debts, possessions, and responsibilities being taken over by the Dutch state. Dutch East India Company. 1602–1799 The Dutch East India Company had two important strategic advantages in the cut-throat competition for trade and constant naval skirmishing among European powers in south-east Asia in the 17th century. Its base at Batavia was...

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