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Fiscal Deficit

Fiscal Deficit   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,776 words
Illustration(s):
3

...6.36 2001–2 6.19 1.47 4.4 4.14 1.43 2.65 9.86 3.65 7.05 2003–4 4.48 -0.03 3.57 4.38 1.46 2.3 8.42 2.03 5.87 2005–6 3.95 0.37 2.49 2.43 0.16 0.19 6.46 0.96 2.68 2007–8 2.56 -0.89 1.06 1.53 -0.49 -0.87 4.12 -1.13 0.19 2008–9 6.05 2.6 4.55 2.63 0.72 -0.19 8.5 3.35 4.14 2009–10 6.4 3.1 5.2 3.2 1.33 0.52 9.59 4.29 5.06 2010–11 4.7 1.7 3.1 2011–12 4.6 1.6 3.4 Source : For central government, Reserve Bank of India database (available at http://dbie.rbi.org.in ) for all data, except provisional (unaudited) accounts from Comptroller General of Accounts for 2010–11, and...

Oil

Oil   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,201 words
Illustration(s):
2

...775.0 -0.2 -0.8 1.4 Crude production (MMT) 33.0 35.2 32.4 32.2 33.7 1.3 -1.6 0.6 Gross imports of crude oil (MMT) 20.7 27.3 74.1 99.4 159.3 5.7 22.1 11.6 Consumption of crude oil (refinery throughput) (MMT) 51.8 58.7 103.4 130.1 160.0 2.5 12.0 6.4 Net imports of POL crude & products (MMT) 26.7 44.2 75.0 94.5 131.8 10.6 11.2 8.4 Consumption of POL products (MMT) 55.0 74.8 100.7 113.2 138.2 6.3 6.1 4.6 Export of petroleum products (MMT) 2.7 3.4 8.4 23.5 51.0 4.7 19.8 29.4 Self reliance in crude =100 * production/(Imports + production) 61.5 56.3 30.4 24.5 17.5 R/P...

Mali

Mali   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
633 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications (1997) Capital: Bamako Area: 1,240,192 sq km (478,841 sq miles) Population: 15,968,882 (2013 est) Currency: 1 CFA franc=100 centimes Religions: Muslim 94.8%; Christian 2.4%; traditional beliefs 2.0% Ethnic Groups: Mande 50.0%; Peul 17.0%; Voltaic 12.0%; Tuareg and Moor 10.0%; Songhai 6.0% Languages: French (official); Bambara; local languages International Organizations: UN; AU; Franc Zone; ECOWAS; Non-Aligned Movement; WTO A landlocked country in north-west Africa, sharing common boundaries with Mauritania,...

Grenada

Grenada   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
489 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications (1997) Capital: St George’s Area: 344 sq km (133 sq miles) Population: 109,590 (2013 est) Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar=100 cents Religions: Roman Catholic 53.0%; Anglican 13.8%; other Protestant 33.2% Ethnic Groups: Black 82.0%; mixed 13.0%; European and East Indian 5.0% Languages: English (official) International Organizations: UN; OAS; CARICOM; Commonwealth; Non-Aligned Movement; WTO A state comprising the southernmost of the Windward Islands in the Caribbean and several small islands, part of the...

Nauru

Nauru   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
343 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications ( 1997 ) Capital: Yaren (de facto; there is no official capital) Area: 21 sq km (8.2 sq miles) Population: 9,434 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Australian dollar = 100 cents Religions: Protestant 45.8%; Roman Catholic 33.2% Ethnic Groups: Nauruan 58.0%; other Pacific Islander 26.0%; Chinese 8.0%; European 8.0% Languages: Nauruan (official); English International Organizations: UN; Commonwealth; Pacific Islands Forum; Secretariat of the Pacific Community A tiny island country just south of the Equator in the...

Economic Growth

Economic Growth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,662 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 1913–1950 1950–1973 1973–1998 W. Europe 0.2 1.0 1.3 0.8 4.1 1.8 U.K. 0.3 1.3 1.0 0.9 2.4 1.8 U.S.A. 0.4 1.3 1.8 1.6 2.4 2.0 China 0.00.2 0.1 −0.6 2.9 5.4 India 0.0 0.0 0.5 −0.2 1.4 2.9 Japan 0.1 0.2 1.5 0.9 8.0 2.3 East Asia 0.0 3.7 3.9 S. America 0.2 0.1 1.8 1.4 2.5 1.0 Africa 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.0 2.1 0.0 World 0.05 0.5 1.3 0.9 2.9 1.3 Note : East Asia comprises Hong Kong,...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,472 words
Illustration(s):
1

...total contributions by natural activities Antimony 1.3 1.5 — 0.7 3.5 2.6 Arsenic 2.2 12.4 2.0 2.3 19.0 12.0 Cadmium 0.8 5.4 0.6 0.8 7.6 1.4 Chromium 12.7 — 17.0 0.8 31.0 43.0 Copper 8.0 23.6 2.0 1.6 35.0 6.1 Lead 12.7 49.1 15.7 254.9 332.0 28.0 Manganese 12.1 3.2 14.7 8.3 38.0 12.0 Mercury 2.3 0.1 — 1.2 3.6 317.0 Nickel 42.0 4.8 4.5 0.4 52.0 2.5 Selenium 3.9 2.3 — 0.1 6.3 3.0 Thallium 1.1 — 4.0 — 5.1 29.0 Tin 3.3 1.1 — 0.8 5.1 10.0 Vanadium 84.0 0.1 0.7 1.2 86.0 28.0 Zinc 16.8 72.5 33.4 9.2 132.0 45.0 source : Ayres and Simonis ( 1996 , p. 11). In an ideally...

Honduras

Honduras   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
591 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications (1997) Capital: Tegucigalpa Area: 112,090 sq km (43,278 sq miles) Population: 8,448,465 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Honduran lempira = 100 centavos Religions: Roman Catholic 97.0%; Protestant 3.0% Ethnic Groups: Mestizo 90.0%; Amerindian 7.0%; Black 2.0%; White 1.0% Languages: Spanish (official); minority languages International Organizations: UN; OAS; Non-Aligned Movement; WTO A country in Central America, bounded on the north and west by Guatemala and El Salvador and on the south by Nicaragua. Physical...

Guinea

Guinea   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
495 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications (1997) Capital: Conakry Area: 245,857 sq km (94,926 sq miles) Population: 11,176,026 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Guinean franc = 100 centimes Religions: Muslim 85.0%; Christian 8.0%; traditional beliefs 7.0% Ethnic Groups: Peuhl 40.0%; Malinke 30.0%; Soussou 20.0% Languages: French (official); local languages International Organizations: UN; AU; ECOWAS; Non-Aligned Movement; WTO A West African country with an Atlantic coast, bounded on the north by Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, and Mali, on the east by Côte d’Ivoire,...

Botswana

Botswana   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
481 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Capital: Gaborone Area: 581,730 sq km (224,607 sq miles) Population: 2,127,825 ( 2012 est) Currency: 1 pula = 100 thebe Religions: Christian 71.6%; traditional beliefs 6.0% Ethnic Groups: Tswana 79.0%; Kalanga 11.0%; Basarwa 3.0% Languages: Setswana, English (official); local languages International Organizations: UN; AU; SADC; Non-Aligned Movement; Commonwealth; WTO A landlocked country in southern Africa. It is bordered by Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the east, and South Africa to the south. Physical Botswana lies in the hot, dry...

Mauritius

Mauritius   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
490 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(1997) Capital: Port Louis Area: 2040 sq km (788 sq miles) Population: 1,322,238 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Mauritian rupee=100 cents Religions: Hindu 48.5%; Roman Catholic 26.3%; Muslim 17.3%; other Christian 6.4% Ethnic Groups: Indo-Mauritian 68.0%; Creole 27.0%; Sino-Mauritian 3.0%; Franco-Mauritian 2.0% Languages: English (official); Creole; Bhojpuri; French International Organizations: UN; Non-Aligned Movement; Commonwealth; AU; SADC; WTO An island country lying in the southern Indian Ocean, about 800 km (500 miles) to the east of Madagascar; it is...

Namibia

Namibia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
517 words
Illustration(s):
1

... South-West Africa ) Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications ( 1997 ) Capital: Windhoek Area: 824,292 sq km (317,818 sq miles) Population: 2,182,852 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Namibian dollar = 100 cents Religions: Christian: between 80.0% and 90.0%; traditional beliefs: between 10.0% and 20.% Ethnic Groups: Ovambo 50.0%; Kavango 9.0%; Herero 7.0%; Damara 7.0%; mixed 6.5%; White 6.0%; Nama 5.0% Languages: English (official); Afrikaans; German; local languages International Organizations: Commonwealth; UN; AU; SADC; Non-Aligned Movement; WTO A...

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,681 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2 935 1 692 Armenia 1 376 0 0 Belgium 7 5,801 0 0 Brazil 2 1,901 0 0 Bulgaria 4 2,722 0 0 Canada 18 12,599 0 0 China 9 6,602 2 2,000 Czech Republic 6 3,528 0 0 Finland 4 2,676 1 1,600 France 59 63,363 0 0 Germany 17 20,339 0 0 Hungary 4 1,755 0 0 India 15 3,040 8 3,602 Iran 0 0 1 915 Japan 55 46,772 2 1,933 Korea, Republic of 20 16,810 0 0 Lithuania 1 1,185 0 0 Mexico 2 1,310 0 0 Netherlands 1 449 0 0 Pakistan 2 425 0 0 Romania 1 655 1 655 Russian Federation 31 21,743 4 3,775 Slovak Republic 6 2,442 0 0 Slovenia 1 656 0 0 South Africa 2 1,800 0 0 Spain...

Recycling

Recycling   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,512 words
Illustration(s):
8

...0.39 aef GA 25 1996 n/a n/a n/a n/a f HI 50 2000 20 0.40 2.40 0.17 b ID 25 1995 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a IL 25 1996 27 3.84 12.70 0.30 abcd IN 50 2001 19 1.10 4.40 0.25 ace IA 50 2000 28 0.89 0.19 4.66 ab KS None None 8 0.28 1.50 0.19 ae KY 25 1997 15 0.55 0.15 3.66 aef LA 25 1992 6 0.29 n/a n/a ae ME 50 1998 33 0.43 0.26 1.64 a MD 20 1994 27 1.43 0.26 5.49 abcef MA 46 2000 31 2.19 5.20 0.42 c MI 25 2005 25 3.38 14.00 0.24 bce MN 35, † 50 ‡ 1996 44 2.11 22.00 0.10 abcf MS 25 1996 12 0.29 0.50 0.58 bef MO 40 1998 18 1.35 3.80 0.36 bef MT 25 1996 6 0.04 0.05 0.88...

Kuwait

Kuwait   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
434 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Capital: Kuwait City Area: 17,818 sq km (6880 sq miles) Population: 2,695,316 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Kuwaiti dinar= 1000 fils Religions: Sunni Muslim 59.5%; Shiite Muslim 25.5% Ethnic Groups: Kuwaiti Arab 45.0%; non-Kuwaiti Arab 35.0%; South Asian 9.0% Languages: Arabic (official); English International Organizations: UN; Arab League; GCC; OPEC; OAPEC; Non-Aligned Movement; WTO A small country in the north-west corner of the Gulf, flanked by Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Physical Kuwait is mainly low desert, very hot in summer but cool in winter, and...

Liberia

Liberia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
522 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications (1997) Capital: Monrovia Area: 111,369 sq km (43,000 sq miles) Population: 3,989,703 (2013 est) Currency: 1 Liberian dollar = 100 cents Religions: Christian 85.6%; Muslim 12.2%; traditional beliefs 0.2% Ethnic Groups: Kpelle 20.3%; Bassa 13.4%; Grebo 10.0%; Gio 8.0%; Mano 7.9%; Kru 6.0%; Lorma 5.1% Languages: English (official); indigenous languages International Organizations: UN; AU; ECOWAS; Non‐Aligned Movement A tropical country on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, flanked by Sierra Leone, Guinea, and...

Lesotho

Lesotho   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1 loti = 100 lisente Religions: Christian 80.0%; traditional beliefs 20.0% Ethnic Groups: Sotho 99.7% Languages: Sesotho, English (both official); Zulu; Xhosa International Organizations: UN; AU; SADC; Commonwealth; Non‐Aligned Movement; WTO A small landlocked country entirely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. Physical Lesotho lies in the central and highest part of the Drakensberg Mountains, where summer rains cause severe soil erosion and in winter the temperature can be as low as –16°C (2°F). The Orange River rises here, in a terrain most...

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence   Reference library

Titus J. Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
29,925 words
Illustration(s):
41

...d H = Mortality by 2007, hazard ratio (0.60/0.65) c E = Years of education (9.74/9.59) M/F 0.963 *** /0.951 *** {0.951–0.975}/{0.937–0.965} [Table 3, Column 3] M/F 0.948 *** /0.962 * {0.914–0.984}/{0.925–1.001} [Table 3, Column 4] van den Berg et al. (2012) e Danish Twin Registry Birth cohorts 1888–1897 N = 2,839/2,856 H = Mortality (0.62) E = Eligible for reform that expanded voluntary education (0.5/0.5) M/F –0.194 ** /–0.063 (0.086)/(0.080) [Table 11/12, Column 1] M/F –0.183 ** /–0.054 f (0.088)/(0.087) [Table 11/12, Column 3] Behrman et al....

Netherlands, the

Netherlands, the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
714 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications ( 1997 ) Capital: Amsterdam Area: 41,863 sq km (16,163 sq miles) Population: 16,805,037 (2013 est) Currency: 1 euro = 100 cents Religions: Roman Catholic 30.0%; Dutch Reformed Church 11.0%; Calvinist 6.0%; Muslim 5.8% Ethnic Groups: Dutch 80.7%; EU 5.0%; Indonesian 2.4% Languages: Dutch, Frisian (both official) International Organizations: UN; OECD; NATO; EU; Council of Europe; OSCE; WTO A European country on the North Sea. It is also known informally as Holland, although this properly refers only...

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...strong variation on both sides. Table 2. Total National Multiparty Elections Held After Independence (1960–2017) Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account...

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