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interval

interval   Reference library

Percy Scholes, Judith Nagley, and Arnold Whittall

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...major or perfect interval increased chromatically by a semitone at either end becomes augmented: thus C–G, a perfect 5th, becomes an augmented 5th in either of the forms C–G♯ or C♭–G, and C–A, a major 6th, becomes an augmented 6th in either of the forms C–A♯ or C♭–A. Similarly, any minor or perfect interval reduced chromatically by a semitone at either end becomes diminished: thus C–G, a perfect 5th, becomes a diminished 5th in either of the forms C–G♭ or C♯–G, and C–A♭, a minor 6th, becomes a diminished 6th in either of the forms C–A♭♭ or C♯–A♭. Very...

Tanggu

Tanggu   Reference library

Alan R. Thrasher

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
342 words
Illustration(s):
1

...usually between 20 and 30 cm. On modern small tanggu, however, body length is somewhat elongated and the profile less convex. The shorter zhangu has a less bulbous body and greater variability in size; a small one typically measures about 17 cm long and about 27 cm in head diameter. The tonggu is essentially an oversized tanggu with a minimally convex body, its length (about 60 cm) greater than its head diameter (about 50 cm). The tanggu and related drums are traditionally used in Beijing opera, many percussion genres (e.g. shifan luogu , Sunan ...

binary form

binary form   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Lalage Cochrane

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
527 words
Illustration(s):
1

...pieces continued to be written in the 19th century, usually cast as a ‘theme and variations’; one example is the Andante of Beethoven's ‘Appassionata’ Sonata. The form is also found in some of Schumann's piano music. In the 20th century, binary form was used as the basis for complex structural devices. See also form (5) . G. M. Tucker / Lalage...

harmonic series

harmonic series   Reference library

Anthony Baines and John Borwick

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
475 words
Illustration(s):
1

... equal temperament harmonics C (0) 1 2 4 8 16 C ♯ (100) 17 (105) D (200) 9 (204) 18 E ♭ (300) 19 (298) E (400) 5 (386) 10 20 F (500) 21 (471) 11 (551) 22 F ♯ (600) 23 (628) G (700) 3 (702) 6 12 24 G ♯ (800) 13 (840) A (900) B ♭ (1000) 7 (969) 14 B (1100) 15 (1088) c (1200) wavelength corresponds to half the frequency, and so...

ground

ground   Reference library

Percy Scholes and Judith Nagley

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
500 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bass. It was indeed as a variation technique that the ground persisted beyond the Baroque period, though often under the more specific title of chaconne or passacaglia (e.g. the finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony or Britten's Passacaglia from the Four Sea Interludes from Peter Grimes ). The ground, together with related ostinato and passacaglia techniques, held some fascination for 20th-century composers, particularly those interested in neo-classicism, notably Bartók (Concerto for Orchestra and many of the piano pieces in Mikrokosmos ), Stravinsky ...

Mouthpiece

Mouthpiece   Reference library

Philip Bate, Murray Campbell, and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
633 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a bow. In the 20th century specialist makers of mouthpieces emerged and makers produced extensive ranges of mouthpieces differing in rim, cup, and backbore shape. Categorizing mouthpieces is not simple: some instruments (especially the trombone) have used at different times and in different places a wide range of cup shapes; in other cases mouthpieces for different instruments (e.g. keyed bugle and cornopean) have been indistinguishable. Mouthpieces for brass instruments fall into two main groups: those with a cup diameter less than 20 mm (including those...

Viola d’amore

Viola d’amore   Reference library

Myron Rosenblum

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...other types of instruments. For most of the 18th century the viola d’amore was tuned in the key of the composition it was to play. Mattheson and Walther wrote that the instrument was tuned in either C minor or C major: g – c ′– e♭ ′( e ′)– g ′– c ″. In addition to the C (minor or major) tuning Eisel offered another: F – B♭ – d – g – c ′– g ′– b ′. Compositions from the first half of the 18th century employ many scordatura tunings. Majer listed 16 for the viola d’amore in 1732. By the end of the century, however, the standard tuning was in D major: A – d –...

Scordatura

Scordatura   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Robin Stowell, Mark Chambers, James Tyler, and Richard Partridge

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,052 words
Illustration(s):
8

...and was used sparingly in the 19th-century chamber music repertory (e.g. Schumann’s Piano Quartet op.47, which uses B ♭′– G – d – a ). 20th-century chamber and orchestral works that employ cello scordatura include Alban Berg’s Lyric Suite , Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring , and Respighi’s Pini di Roma , which all employ the tuning B′ – G – d – a . Solo works for cello scordatura include Kodály’s Sonata op.8 (which uses B′ – F ♯– d – a ) and Ralph Shapey’s Krosnick Soli ( A′ – G – d – a ). The unique evolution of the double bass as a three-, four-, and...

Concertina

Concertina   Reference library

Allan W. Atlas

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Everett Millais’s painting The Blind Girl ; 1856, Birmingham City Museum and Art Gallery). Here each button produces two pitches, one as the bellows is pulled out, another when it is pushed in. On a basic 20-button Anglo concertina the buttons are arranged in two rows on each side, each of five buttons. The two rows are tuned a 5th apart (e.g. C/G, G/D, or, more rarely, B♭/F), with the only ‘chromatic’ note allowing for secondary dominants. A 30-button Anglo has an extra row of buttons on each side, providing a range of accidentals and other useful notes....

fugue

fugue   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Andrew V. Jones

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,005 words
Illustration(s):
2

...dominant minor in its ‘answer’ form, and the third episode develops the counterpoint of the link (bars 5–6). A tonic middle entry at bar 20 is followed by the fourth episode, which develops and extends material from the first episode. Both the bass entry in bar 26 and the soprano entry in bar 29 have the effect of final entries. The dramatic break in bar 28 and the concluding tonic pedal signal the end of the fugue. G. M. Tucker / Andrew V....

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

...with bowed notes (e.g. Bartók’s Contrasts ). Paganini’s Introduction and Variations on Paisiello’s ‘Nel cor più non mi sento’, for example, employs left-hand pizzicato in accompanying, melodic and decorative roles, and the 15th variation of his Carnaval de Venise involves pizzicato for both left and right hands. Sculthorpe also employs left-hand pizzicato extensively (e.g. in Requiem ). Pizzicato techniques demanded by composers in the 20th century included the prescription of various pizzicato locations (e.g. mid-point of the string, at or...

key signature

key signature   Reference library

Percy Scholes and Judith Nagley

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...often written with one less flat and in major keys with one less sharp in the signature than is normal today, the ‘missing’ accidentals appearing regularly in the course of a piece where modern notation would include them in the key signature. In the late 19th century and the 20th, chromaticism and atonality contributed to the demise of the key signature's usefulness. At the same time, some composers experimented with ‘hybrid’ signatures, including both sharps and flats, to draw attention to special features of tonality in their music. See also accidental...

continuo

continuo   Reference library

Christopher Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,056 words
Illustration(s):
5

...whether sacred or secular. Only in archaic pieces (e.g. Purcell's viol fantasias of the 1680s) and in such exceptional works as Bach's motets is the continuo absent. Elsewhere it is all-pervading until the 1750s. The decline in importance of the basso continuo is evident in the increasing number of pieces with notated four-part texture or with non-harmonic accompanying bass from the earlier part of the 18th century. This can be seen especially in orchestral music (early Haydn ) and in solo sonatas (e.g. Bach, sonata for violin and harpsichord bwv 1016)....

notation

notation   Reference library

Anthony Pryer

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,523 words
Illustration(s):
10

...possible. In the 20th century, Stockhausen actually gives the tempo indication ‘fastest speed possible’ in some sections of his Zeitmasze ( 1956 ). The 19th-century concern for virtuosity and expressiveness naturally resulted in increased attention to the notation of articulation, phrasing, and expressive nuance. Dynamic levels too have become more extreme, and experiments have been made to indicate dynamics not by traditional methods ( ff , pp , etc.) but by the size of note-head (e.g. in Stockhausen's Zyklus ), numerical scales (e.g. in Cage's ...

Bird instruments

Bird instruments   Reference library

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
888 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: Hudební automaty (Prague, 1959; Eng. trans., London, 1959) Q.D. Bowers : Encyclopedia of Automatic Musical Instruments (New York, 1972) A.W.J.G. Ord-Hume : Clockwork Music (London, 1973) J.J.L. Haspels : Automatic Musical Instruments, their Mechanics and their Music, 1580–1820 (diss., Utrecht U., 1987) A.W.J.G. Ord-Hume : The Musical Box (Atglen, PA, 1995) Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume ...

Spinet

Spinet   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin and Lance Whitehead

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,987 words
Illustration(s):
1

...100–53 J.H. van der Meer : ‘Studien zum Cembalobau in Italien’, Festschrift to Ernst Emsheimer , ed. G. Hilleström (Stockholm, 1974), 131–48, 275 N. Meeùs : ‘The Nomenclature of Plucked Keyboard Instruments’, FoMRHI Quarterly (Oct 1981), no.25, pp.18–20 J. Barnes : Making a Spinet by Traditional Methods (Welwyn, Herts., 1985) L.F. Tagliavini and J.H. van der Meer , ed.: Clavicembali e spinette dal XVI al XIX secolo (Bologna, 1986) G.G. O’Brien : ‘The Double-Manual Harpsichord by Francis Coston, London, c.1725’, GSJ , vol.47 (1994), 2–32 ...

mode

mode   Reference library

David Hiley

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,923 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the previous eight (see Ex. 1) he added the Aeolian ( a–a ′) and the Hypoaeolian ( e–e ′), both with finals on a , and the Ionian ( c–c ′) and Hypoionian ( gg ′), both with finals on c. He stated that the Ionian was the mode most commonly used in his time. Glarean drew on extensive studies of Boethius and of classical Greek authors (such as Aristoxenus, rediscovered and translated only in the late 20th century; see ancient Greek music (1) ) to find names for his new modes. For Ionian he also used the name Iastian; Hypomixolydian he also called...

Harmonics

Harmonics   Reference library

Guy Oldham, Murray Campbell, and Clive Greated

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,243 words
Illustration(s):
1

...d‴ 93.60 cents (used by J. Wallis) 19 4 octaves + 297.51 cents 88.80 cents (used by J. Wallis) 20 4 octaves + 386.31 cents e‴ 84.47 cents 21 4 octaves + 470.78 cents 80.64 cents 22 4 octaves + 551.32 cents 76.96 cents 23 4 octaves + 628.27 cents 73.68 cents 24 4 octaves + 701.96 cents g‴ 70.67 cents (chromatic semitone) 25 4 octaves + 772.63 cents g♯‴ 2 . Wind instruments. A wind instrument, conventionally blown, generates a continuous pitched...

Transposing instruments

Transposing instruments   Reference library

Anthony C. Baines and Janet K. Page

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,614 words
Illustration(s):
1

...‘B♭ basso’ a major 9th lower; those ‘in A’ sound a minor 3rd lower, and so on down to D♭ sounding a major 7th lower, except for parts in ‘A♭ basso’ (e.g. in Verdi), which sound a major 10th lower. Traditionally, passages written in the bass clef sound higher than written, instead of lower (e.g. c written in the bass clef sounds the same as c ′ written in the treble clef, etc.). There was a move during the 20th century to abolish this irrational system and use the bass clef in continuation of the treble as in other music. But, quite apart from tenacity of...

Bagpipe

Bagpipe   Reference library

William A. Cocks, Anthony C. Baines, Roderick D. Cannon, James B. Kopp, Seán Donnelly, and Graham Wells

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
9,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...still to open only one hole at once, this gives 15 notes: d′ , e′ , f ♯ ′ , g′ , a′ , b′ , c″ , c ♯ ″ , d″ , d ♯ ″ , e″ , f ♯ ″ , g″ , a″ , b″ . When four drones are present they are pitched in d , g , d′ , and g′ , although only three are sounded at any one time. The g drone is fitted with a tuning bead which can be rotated to sharpen that drone to a in order to play in the key of D. By sounding only three drones at any one time, the harmonies g – d′ – g′ , d – a – d′ , a – e′ – a′ can be selected. Complex small-pipes drones have...

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