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Gruelle, Johnny

Gruelle, Johnny   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...also drew comic strips, and from about 1908 concentrated on comics for children. One of his most popular comic strip characters was Mr. Twee Deedle . Johnny Gruelle . Illustration from Raggedy Ann's Sunny Songs by Gruelle and Will Wooden (New York: Miller Music, c. 1930), p. 20. Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's Library, Princeton University Library Various versions of the origin of Raggedy Ann and Andy have circulated, but a family diary supports the story that the inspiration for Raggedy was an old rag doll that Gruelle's daughter, ...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
796 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on May 15, 1948 , by a majority vote of the United Nations in the area roughly encompassing the Jewish state of biblical times. Bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Israel has a population of about 6.6 million. Hebrew is spoken by 80 percent of the population; the remaining 20 percent speak Arabic. English is taught as a second language. Israel has experienced a series of wars with and terrorist attacks from neighboring countries that do not recognize its right to exist. Israeli Author and Publisher Bialik . Illustration by R. Markus-Shalit and A. Beham...

Burroughs, Edgar Rice

Burroughs, Edgar Rice   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
696 words
Illustration(s):
1

...plots, prose style, and stereotypical characters, and Burroughs has been accused of plagiarizing Rudyard Kipling (in the Tarzan books) and H. G. Wells , Jules Verne , and Jack London , a charge to which he replied by pointing out common mythic origins for their fiction. The science fiction novels about Mars, Venus, the moon, and underground Pelludicar introduce popular scientific principles of the early 20th century . Yet such scientific facts as the lower gravity of Mars, which allows his first hero, John Carter, to defeat seemingly overwhelming...

Mystery and Detective Fiction

Mystery and Detective Fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...detective stories such as Dashiell Hammett 's work in the early 20th century . Poe's and Doyle's popularity led to the founding of the London Detective Club, fostered by the writer G.  K. Chesterton in the 1920s. Readers also had heroes in series fiction published as dime novels; the best-known and perhaps longest-lasting was the Nick Carter series, beginning in the 1860s in America and passing through several transformations into novel and even radio series through the early to mid-20th century . Nancy Drew Mystery . Front cover of The Mystery of the...

Historical Fiction

Historical Fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from The Guns of Bull Run: A Story of the Civil War's Eve , 1914 , to Shades of Appomattox: A Story of the Civil War's Close , 1916 ); and John Bennett , whose Master Skylark: A Story of Shakespeare's Time ( 1897 ) was much admired at the turn of the 20th century . The 20th Century Of the 20th-century specialists in historical fiction the individual most frequently mentioned as a leading practitioner is Rosemary Sutcliff . As had Scott and Stevenson, Sutcliff published a novel about the Jacobites, Bonnie Dundee ( 1983 ), and the casts of her...

Netherlands

Netherlands   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,120 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the century the girl's novel (in imitation of Louisa May Alcott 's books) and the boy's novel came into vogue, genres that dominated the first half of the 20th century . A real classic, still in print, is C. Joh. Kieviet 's Uit het leven van Dik Trom (From the Life of Dik Trom , 1891 ): the portrait of a “real Dutch boy,” who plays all possible pranks but has a heart of gold. From the turn of the 20th century there is even more attention paid to the emotions of children, their play and leisure. In poetry for children one finds a great influence from...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,293 words
Illustration(s):
1

...voice, and inflated accounts of Maori war practices helped sell G. A. Henty 's adventure story Maori and Settler: A Story of the New Zealand War ( 1891 ); the ultimate triumph for the family being a return to England. New Zealand . Front cover of The Adventures of Hutu and Kawa by Avis Acres; told by Colleen Rea (Wellington, N.Z.: A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1958). Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's Library, Princeton University Library 20th-Century Genres In the early 20th century , fantasy creatures collated from Irish and English tales and...

African American Literature

African American Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,056 words
Illustration(s):
1

...According to this definition, books such as Helen Bannerman 's The Story of Little Black Sambo ( 1899 ), Sara Cone Bryant 's Epaminondas and His Auntie ( 1938 ), and the countless versions of The Ten Little Niggers books that proliferated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries should be excluded because of their stereotyped characters and reliance on minstrel images. Other scholars include only books written about African American young people and created by African American artists, although this definition is somewhat problematic for...

Alice Imitations

Alice Imitations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,173 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and character-types. So many of these texts were produced in late 19th and early 20th centuries that “books of the Alice type” could be seen as constituting a cultural phenomenon, and nearly a literary genre, in their own right. While the term “imitation” implies a counterfeit, duplicate, or inferior version of an original, many of these texts were written by gifted authors such as Rossetti, Ingelow, Juliana Ewing , Augusta Webster , Frances Hodgson Burnett , E. Nesbit , G. E. Farrow , Tom Hood , Saki ( H. H. Munro ), John Kendrick Bangs , and E. F....

Science Fiction

Science Fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,330 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to read omnivorously without regard to age categories. It is thus, once again, entirely accurate to define the work of Verne, Wells, Edgar Rice Burroughs , Robert Heinlein , Arthur C. Clarke , Arkady and Boris Strugatski , Herbert Franke , and most of the other 19th- and 20th-century giants in the field as, at least in part, children's literature. A question then emerges: does children's or young adult science fiction differ in any appreciable way from adult science fiction? Heinlein, arguably the most significant writer in the field, insisted that...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,403 words
Illustration(s):
3

...that marks the 20th century . It is, then, ironic that two of the most famous, most iconic, and most canonical children's books of the century are arguably not children's books at all. Kenneth Grahame 's The Wind in the Willows ( 1908 ), ostensibly written for his disabled son, Alastair , can easily be read as a repressive, retreatist book, riddled with a (male) adult's fear of change. Similarly, J. M. Barrie 's Peter Pan (first stage production, 1904 ) encapsulates a highly ambiguous and questionable attitude toward childhood. The 20th Century The...

School Stories

School Stories   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the young but also the lack of barriers to women's getting work of this kind published when other avenues were closed to them. Not surprisingly, school stories soon became vehicles for evangelical influence, leading to a branch of the genre that survived right up to the mid-20th century (in, for example, the work of Dorothy Dennison and Helen S. Humphries ). School Stories . “Tom's Departure from Rugby”; illustration by Arthur Hughes from Tom Brown's School Days by Thomas Hughes (London: Macmillan, 1869). Collection of Jack Zipes The school story...

Adventure Books

Adventure Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,321 words
Illustration(s):
2

...largely descriptive mainly in terms of character and exciting incidents, has mushroomed since the late 20th century . The debate has tended to concentrate on three main areas. First, the British adventure story in particular has been investigated in terms of its political and ideological meanings. Desert island adventures and stories set overseas have often been interpreted as metaphors for British colonialism, although the attitudes of such writers as G. A. Henty and W. E. Johns are frequently disputed. Second, adventure stories are being discussed in terms...

Grimm

Grimm   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,307 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Tales were first translated into Danish. Dutch ( 1820 ) and English ( 1823 ) versions followed. Since then, the tales have been translated into more than one hundred languages all over the world. In the 20th century , the tales have been both praised for their alleged universal character and attacked for their alleged sexism and bourgeois values. Many 20th-century authors have written their own versions of the tales both for children and adults, often updating the tales to a contemporary setting or parodying the Grimms’ style. See also Fairy Tales and...

Blyton, Enid

Blyton, Enid   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,130 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and “Noddy.” It was the latter, the story of a wooden doll in Toyland, that was Blyton's biggest commercial success. The books were groundbreaking in their design, with full-color illustrations on every page (by the Dutch artist Harmsen van der Beek ), and sold an astonishing 20 million copies in the U.K. during the 1950s. Noddy, with his attempts at gaining recognition in an alien world, was immensely popular with young children. The character transferred to television and theater and generated extensive product merchandising—even though many adults...

Crane, Walter

Crane, Walter   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,165 words
Illustration(s):
1

...) artistically reinforced its instructional message, and in 1899 and 1907 he produced The Walter Crane Readers and, with Miss Nellie Dale , The Dale Readers Book II , linking sounds and words with colors for identification. Although Crane's popularity declined in the early 20th century , an appreciation of his work is reviving, together with recognition of his innovative approach and of his belief that the imagination of children should be continually stimulated by the illustrations in their literature. See also Book Design ; Illustrations ; Primers...

Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,047 words
Illustration(s):
1

...son, who allowed it to be published in 1934 . The stress is on parables and works of healing and charity. Dickens's religious beliefs were often contradictory and full of prejudice, but for all that he was a staunch Christian. There were many retellings of Dickens's novels in the 20th century , some with distinguished artwork, such as Edward Ardizzone 's ( 1959 ) and Faith Jaques 's ( 1971 ) illustrations for David Copperfield . Samuel McChord Crother 's The Children of Dickens ( 1925 ), illustrated by Jessie Wilcox Smith , included minor characters as...

Geography and Travel Books

Geography and Travel Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,334 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Stephens were both editors of The Youth's Companion ); the lively Family Flight books by Edward Everett Hale and his sister Susan Hale; and Elizabeth Champney 's Vassar Girls and Witch Winnie series. The frame of a fictionalized geography book was revived in the 20th century with Geoffrey Trease 's Young Traveller series. Finally, picture books expand modern boundaries for young readers. Picture books by Holling C. Holling , Mitsumasa Anno , Roxie Munro , Thomas Locker , and Jeannie Baker represent a variety of fiction and...

Children's Magazines

Children's Magazines   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,434 words
Illustration(s):
1

...matters. Contributors included Mrs. Molesworth and E. Nesbit . Readers preferring a self-sacrificing, domestic model of womanhood might turn to Charlotte Yonge 's Monthly Packet of Evening Readings for Younger Members of the English Church ( 1851–1898 ), but by the early 20th century girls and women were moving into the workplace, and duty, while still a central theme, began to look rather different. For the working girl there were “mill- girl papers” like Girls' Weekly ( 1912–1922 ), Peg's Paper ( 1919–1940 ), and Alfred Harmsworth 's weeklies,...

Sports Books

Sports Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,215 words
Illustration(s):
1

...about a small-town baseball player who makes it big. Tunis was one of the first authors to portray athletes of different races or religion in his stories. Because of the depth of his works, many remain in print and are still read today. Most sports stories in the first half of the 20th century did not have Tunis's depth. Instead, they emphasized teamwork over the achievements of the individual and were very lightly wrapped morality tales. That began to change in the 1960s— while the real world was testing the status quo, characters in sports books began to...

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