You are looking at 1-20 of 96 entries  for:

  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

gestalt theory

gestalt theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,784 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Gestalt School of psychological thought originated in Germany early in the 20th century (for a comprehensive review, see Koffka 1935 ). It is best known for its theoretical and empirical contributions to understanding the organization of perceptual experience, including the nature of perceived groups, objects, parts, properties, and the relations among them, but was extended to address issues concerning problem solving (e.g. Köhler 1925 ) and social psychology (e.g. Lewin 1951 ). Before the advent of gestalt theory, ideas about perceptual...

pattern recognition

pattern recognition   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,614 words
Illustration(s):
7

...D. G. (2001). Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis (2nd edn.). Fu, K. S. (1983). ‘ A step towards unification of syntactic and statistical pattern recognition ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 5/2. Jain, A. K. , Duin, R. P. W. , and Mao, J. (2000). ‘ Statistical pattern recognition: a review ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 22/1. Perlovsky, L. I. (1998). ‘ Conundrum of combinatorial complexity ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 20/6....

attention, neural basis

attention, neural basis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,590 words
Illustration(s):
5

...in the primary visual cortex of alert monkeys ’. Neuron , 22. Kastner, S. and Ungerleider, L. G. (2000). ‘ Mechanisms of visual attention in the human cortex ’. Annual Review of Neuroscience , 23. ——, De Weerd, P. , Desimone, R. , and Ungerleider, L. G. (1998). ‘ Mechanisms of directed attention in the human extrastriate cortex as revealed by functional MRI ’. Science , 282. ——, Pinsk, M. A. , De Weerd, P. , Desimone, R. , and Ungerleider, L. G. (1999). ‘ Increased activity in human visual cortex during directed attention in the absence of...

after‐effects, perceptual

after‐effects, perceptual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,772 words
Illustration(s):
2

...constitutes a gender‐neutral face, and the two photographs on either side of the neutral face are versions biased toward female (left) and toward male (right). Maintain fixation on the right‐hand photograph for 20 s or so and then look at the middle photograph—for the first few seconds, it should look more ‘female’. Next, adapt for 20 s to the left‐hand photograph and notice how the appearance of the gender‐neutral face now looks more ‘male’. Photographs courtesy of Tamara Watson and Colin Clifford, University of Sydney. Perceptual after‐effects may...

gamma oscillations

gamma oscillations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,806 words
Illustration(s):
5

...correlates of awareness in humans is the so‐called * attentional blink . This paradigm involves the rapid serial visual presentation of stimuli such as digits, letters, words, or pictures, typically at a fixed location with presentation frequencies ranging from 3 to 20 items per second (cf. Fig. G4). The notion of ‘attentional blink’ refers to a behaviourally well‐described transient reduction of attention, which can occur if more than one target has to be processed in such a series of stimuli. In this dual‐task situation, a second target stimulus often goes...

neuronal global workspace

neuronal global workspace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,770 words
Illustration(s):
1

...conscious‐level processing. These areas included five sets of brain systems (Dehaene et al. 1998 ): high‐level perceptual processors (e.g. inferotemporal cortex), evaluation circuits (e.g. amygdala, cingulate, and orbitofrontal regions), planning and motor intention systems (e.g. prefrontal and premotor areas), long‐term memory circuits (e.g. hippocampus and parahippocampal regions), and attention‐orienting circuits (e.g. posterior parietal cortices). Thanks to the tight interconnections of these five systems, perceptual information which is consciously...

global workspace theory

global workspace theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,622 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and unconscious brain functions: global workspace theory and IDA ’. Neural Networks , 20. Dehaene, S. and Naccache, L. (2001). ‘ Towards a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: basic evidence and a workspace framework ’. Cognition , 79. ——, Changeux, J. P. , Naccache, L. , Sackur, J. , Sergent, C. (2006). ‘ Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal processing: a testable taxonomy ’. Trends in Cognitive Science , 10. Edelman, G. M. and Tononi, G. (2001). Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination . James, W. (1890). The Principles of...

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,888 words
Illustration(s):
16

...and attracted or repulsed by the prevailing electric field across the membrane, according to the nature of its own net charge (Figs. 6 and 7). Each neuroreceptor channel may be open for only a very brief period (e.g. 1 microsecond) as the neurotransmitter rapidly dissociates and is inactivated, or may remain open for much longer periods (e.g. 1 sec.) depending on the ion channel concerned. As the postsynaptic membrane is densely packed with these structures, the net effect is a substantial movement of charged ions across the membrane. This movement...

tilted room

tilted room   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,764 words
Illustration(s):
2

...body tilted ’. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 38. Howard, I. P. , and Childerson, L. (1994). ‘ The contribution of motion, the visual frame and visual polarity to sensations of body tilt ’. Perception , 23. —— and Hu. G. (2001). ‘ Visually induced reorientation illusions ’. Perception , 30. ——  Jenkin, H. L. , and Hu, G. (2000). ‘ Visually induced reorientation illusions as a function of age ’. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine , 71. Kleint, H. (1937). ‘ Versuche über die Wahrnehmung II. Über Bewegung ’. Zeitschrift für Psychologie ,...

deduction

deduction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,219 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Critique of Pure Reason . But it is here also that the seeds are sown of the fundamental revisions both in logic and in conceptions of the nature and structure of thought which were brought about as a result of the work of Gottlob Frege and others working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For Kant, in spite of his use of a very traditional Aristotelian framework for the construction of his table of judgements, (i) places primary emphasis on judgements as cognitive acts, rather than on ideas as the referents of general terms, and (ii) sees judgement as a...

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,982 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the cerebral cortex, e.g. the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus to AD and the anterior temporal and frontal lobes to Pick's disease. Diagnostic criteria have been improved in the light of clinicopathological studies and, in the case of CJD, for example, by the identification of specific genetic determinants of the phenotypic variability. 2. Clinical diagnosis The concept of dementia has evolved in recent years from the rather non-specific notion of an organic brain syndrome to a more specific concept. During the first half of the 20th century, all mental...

brain imaging

brain imaging   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,752 words
Illustration(s):
4

...emotional learning in the human amygdala ’. Nature , 393. Rees, G. (2001). ‘ Neuroimaging of visual awareness in patients and normal observers ’. Current Opinion in Neurobiology , 11. brain imaging: the neural correlates of will. My voluntary actions, as opposed to my reflexes, are free in the sense that I could have done otherwise. However, in most experimental studies of action the volunteer temporarily gives up this freedom and performs exactly as instructed by the experimenter (e.g. ‘lift your finger whenever you hear the tone’, ‘press the left...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...N. (1959). ‘ Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex ’. Journal of Physiology , 148. Johansson, G. (1973). ‘ Visual perception of biological motion and a model of its analysis ’. Perception and Psychophysics , 14. Jung, R. (1974). ‘Neuropsychologie und Neurophysiologie des Kontur- und Formsehen in Zeichnung and Malerei’. In Wieck, H. H. (ed.), Psychopathologie Musischer Gestaltungen . —— and Baumgartner, G. (1965). ‘ Neuronenphysiologie der visuellen und paravisuellen Rindenfelder ’. Proceedings of the 8th International...

localization of brain function and cortical maps

localization of brain function and cortical maps   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,354 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and reddened when the patient became excited. Coombe had stumbled on changes in cerebral blood flow in relation to particular mental activity, which formed the basis of late 20th-century functional neuroimaging, whereby the localized changes in blood flow that correlate with particular mental events can be registered and pinpointed from outside the head. Much later, in 1950 , W. G. Penfield and Theodore Rasmussen published the results of similar observations made on fully conscious patients awaiting brain surgery under local anaesthetic. By electrically...

hearing

hearing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,446 words
Illustration(s):
4

...cycles per second, is the frequency. The unit of one cycle per second is called the hertz (abbreviated Hz). The Greenwich time signal has a frequency of 1,000 Hz. The highest frequency we can hear varies from 16,000 to 20,000 Hz in young adults, but tends to decrease with increasing age. The lowest frequency which is heard as sound is about 20 Hz. Below that the pressure changes are felt as a vibration rather than heard as sound. We are most sensitive to frequencies around 1,800 Hz. Sine waves, or pure tones, are particularly important in the study of hearing....

psychophysics

psychophysics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,586 words
Illustration(s):
1

...all just-noticeable differences (e.g. between L 1 and L 2 ) are subjectively equivalent, then the sensation (in this case, of brightness) must increase as the logarithm of the physical stimulus magnitude, for if L 2 / L 1 , is constant, so also is log L 2 − log L 1 . Fechner's logarithmic measure was universally accepted until the 1930s, at which time it was questioned for a purely practical reason. At that time the decibel scale for the measurement of auditory intensity was newly developed. On this scale 20 dB represents a tenfold increase in the...

space psychology

space psychology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,961 words
Illustration(s):
2

...report good visual acuity for details seen on earth, and current research shows no consistent changes in near vision or the visual contrast sensitivity function. Fig. 1. Magnitude estimate of discomfort for one subject during the first fourteen hours in orbit. A score of 20 indicates vomiting. Curves between data points were interpolated by the subject. The diamond represents medication (scopolamine and Dexedrine), followed by the horizontal bar representing the period of maximal effectiveness. Redrawn from Young et al., ‘Spatial orientation in...

reductionism

reductionism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,246 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Chalmers, D. (1996). The Conscious Mind . Hooker, C. A. (1981). ‘ Towards a general theory of reduction. Part I. historical and scientific setting. Part II. Identity in reduction. Part III. Cross‐categorial reduction ’. Dialogue , 20. Levine, J. (1993). ‘On leaving out what it's like.’ In Davies, M. and Humphreys, G. W. (eds) Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays . Nagel, E. (1961). The Structure of Science . Schaffner, K. (2006). ‘ Reduction: the Cheshire Cat problem and a return to roots ’. Synthese 151. Silva, A. J. and ...

signal detection theory

signal detection theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,028 words
Illustration(s):
2

...M. (eds) Stratification of Consciousness and Cognition . Fisk, G. D. and Haase, S. J. (2006). ‘ Exclusion failure does not demonstrate unconscious perception II: evidence from a forced‐choice exclusion task ’. Vision Research , 46. Greenwald, A. G. , Klinger, M. R. , and Schuh, E. S. (1995). ‘ Activation by marginally perceptible (“subliminal”) stimuli: Dissociation of unconscious from conscious cognition ’. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 124. Haase, S. J. and Fisk, G. D. (2001). ‘ Confidence in word detection predicts word...

computer chess

computer chess   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,324 words
Illustration(s):
4

...to learn from experience. Yet the final of the 1985 North American computer chess championship, in which Hans Berliner's ‘Hitech’ defeated Robert Hyatt's ‘Cray Blitz’, was recognizably master level. Both programs searched 20–30 million look-ahead positions per move. The equivalent figure for de Groot's grandmasters was 20–30 positions. Further annual tournaments led to the creation in 1988 of Deep Thought by a team of Carnegie Mellon University graduate students including Feng-Hsiung Hsu and Murray Campbell . In that same year the program became...

View: