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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

binary form

binary form   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Lalage Cochrane

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
527 words
Illustration(s):
1

...key the music proceeds through F♯ minor, the relative minor of the tonic (bar 16), and passes again through the dominant (bar 18) in a harmonic sequence leading to the subdominant key of D major (bar 20), before closing in the home key. During the mid- and late Baroque periods, various characteristics became apparent in binary-form movements. One such feature was the use of ‘rhyming cadences’, whereby the cadence at the end of the first section was heard again in the tonic key at the end of the second. In its simplest form, this was a repetition of the...

Ophicleide

Ophicleide   Reference library

Reginald Morley-Pegge, Philip Bate, Stephen J. Weston, and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,819 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and F. Berr, mentions six: altos in F or E♭, basses in C or B♭, and contrabasses in F or E♭. Basses have been by far the most common, and the C more common than the B♭. A few contraltos in A♭ are also known. The alto ophicleides, originally called ‘quinticlaves’ by Halary, were not used in the orchestra, and in bands they were soon replaced by valved instruments such as the clavicor. Contrabass ophicleides, rarely used, were sometimes known as ‘monster ophicleides’. Ex.1 . 2. History. The ophicleide might owe its origin to some form of...

Kora

Kora   Reference library

Roderic C. Knight

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,010 words
Illustration(s):
2

...majority of kora pieces. The precedent for notating the kora on F was established prior to 1970 by a book of études produced for the École des Arts in Dakar by Mamadou Kouyaté. Kora players, who make their own instruments, pitch them to suit themselves, and the choice may range from a 4th below to a 5th above F. But players like to be able to play together or with fixed-pitch instruments such as the balo (xylophone), and a significant number of koras are pitched between E♭ and G. Thus F makes a suitable de facto standard for notation. There are four standard...

Tonic Sol-fa

Tonic Sol-fa   Reference library

Bernarr Rainbow and Piers Spencer

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
635 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the beginner, sol-fa initials were used as a simple form of notation. Tonic Sol-fa is thus a system of aural training, and, once beginners have become familiar with the sol-fa syllables, they should be able to pitch the notes of a simple diatonic tune. With more elaborate melodies, further resources are required. Chromatic degrees are named by changing the vowels of the syllables: sharpened notes use e (pronounced ‘ee’), and flattened notes a (pronounced ‘aw’). For the full chromatic scale in the key of F, see Ex. 1. These chromatic note names are used...

chanson

chanson   Reference library

Frank Dobbins

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,109 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to accompanied song from the 17th century to the 20th). From the 12th century survive such narrative genres as the *chanson de geste (epic song)—with many lines ( laisses or tirades ) sung monophonically to repeated melodic formulas—and such shorter lyrical forms as the chanson de toile (spinning song), divided into strophes sometimes including a refrain. Between the 13th and 15th centuries most of the shorter lyric forms, derived from the round-dance ( carole ), were designated by their fixed rhyme form— rondet , rondel , *rondeau (ABaAabAB), ...

fugue

fugue   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Andrew V. Jones

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,005 words
Illustration(s):
2

...leads to the soprano middle entry in the relative major. In the second episode the soprano inverts the bass line from the first episode. The alto middle entry in bar 15 presents the theme in the dominant minor in its ‘answer’ form, and the third episode develops the counterpoint of the link (bars 5–6). A tonic middle entry at bar 20 is followed by the fourth episode, which develops and extends material from the first episode. Both the bass entry in bar 26 and the soprano entry in bar 29 have the effect of final entries. The dramatic break in bar 28 and the...

Bagpipe

Bagpipe   Reference library

William A. Cocks, Anthony C. Baines, Roderick D. Cannon, James B. Kopp, Seán Donnelly, and Graham Wells

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
9,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bagpipe had almost ceased to be played, though in the early 20th century some pipe makers offered instead the half-sized Highland bagpipe blown by bellows. In the late 20th century the Lowland pipe was revived. Another type of bagpipe made and played in Scotland in the 18th and early 19th centuries is essentially similar to early forms of Irish union pipe. In 20th-century literature it was called the ‘hybrid union pipe’; more recently, the ‘pastoral’ pipe (see §4 below). A Scottish form of small-pipe is found in some museum collections. The chanter is...

Shawm

Shawm   Reference library

Anthony C. Baines, Martin Kirnbauer, James B. Kopp, and Mauricio Molina

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
5,959 words
Illustration(s):
1

...20th-century revival in shawm playing. Table 1 Names and approximate sizes of 16th- and 17th-century shawms German (Praetorius) Modern terminology Compass Length (cm) gar klein Discant Schalmey e high treble ?a′–e ‴ 50 Discant Schalmey treble (soprano) d′–b″ 65 Alt Pommer alto g–d″ (1 key) 75 Tenor Pommer tenor c–g′ (1 key) 110 Basset Pommer G/A/B/c–f ′/g′ (4 keys) 130 Bass Pommer bass C/D/E/F–c′ (4 keys) 180 GrossBass Pommer great bass F...

Trombone

Trombone   Reference library

Anthony C. Baines, Trevor Herbert, and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in oratorios. While there were no precedents for the soloistic virtuosity that was to develop in the 20th century, several 19th-century players made reputations as soloists, including C.T. Queisser and F.A. Belcke in Germany, and A.G. Dieppo in France. Performers with closer links to art music were seldom prominent as soloists in the first half of the 20th century, but band soloists such as Arthur Pryor, who was a star soloist with the Sousa band (formed in 1892), won justified celebrity. From very late in the 19th century several American players made a...

Trumpet

Trumpet   Reference library

Margaret Sarkissian and Edward H. Tarr

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,279 words
Illustration(s):
4

...it appeared in England in a straight form in 1892 and was subsequently folded back on itself like a B♭ trumpet. Several 20th-century composers made use of the D trumpet (the instrument they intended had a narrower bore and a more penetrating tone than the kind generally made nowadays). Such orchestral parts are increasingly played on the piccolo trumpet in B♭ or A. The first piccolo trumpet in G was made by F. Besson for a performance by Teste of Bach’s Magnificat in 1885. Besson subsequently constructed high trumpets in F/E♭ and E♭/D. The piccolo B♭ was...

Oboe

Oboe   Reference library

Janet K. Page, Jeremy Montagu, Geoffrey Burgess, Bruce Haynes, Geoffrey Burgess, and Michael Finkelman

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
21,623 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in C, the family includes a number of different sizes. Lower oboes have appeared in a variety of forms, often with a bulb-shaped bell (see §III). The alto form in F in various guises (oboe da caccia, english horn), has been in the most continuous use. The modern family also includes the oboe d’amore in A, and various forms of bass oboe pitched an octave below the treble instrument. Smaller oboes were built for military use in the 19th century, and in the late 20th century the piccolo oboe or musette was developed to complete the family. 2 . History to 1800...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Harvey Turnbull/Paul Sparks/R (1, 2, 5, 6, 8(ii)), James Tyler/R (3, 4), Tony Bacon/R (7), Oleg V. Timofeyev (8(i)), Gerhard Kubik/R (8(iii)), Thomas F. Heck (Bibliography)

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,769 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1997) D: Guitar technique F. Guthmann : ‘Über Guitarrenspiel’, Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung , vol.8 (1805–6), 362–6 O. Seyffert : ‘Über das Gitarrespiel mit Ring und Nagelanschlag’, Der Gitarrefreund , vol.8 (1907), 33–5, 41–3 E. Just : ‘Die Flageolettöne und ihre Notierung’, Der Gitarrefreund , vol.20 (1919), 11–15, 23–6, 35–7 F. Laible : ‘Physiologie des Anschlages’, Die Gitarre , vol.2 (1920–1), 95–9 F. Buek : ‘Über den Nagelanschlag’, Der Gitarrefreund , vol.22 (1921), 5–6 F. Laible : ‘Physiologie des Greifens’, Die...

Spinet

Spinet   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin and Lance Whitehead

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,987 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to F ′ and have relatively short strings of brass. Furthermore, the bass strings below F are usually more severely foreshortened than those of contemporary harpsichords. Neither the spinet nor the virginal is normally capable of variation in tone colour or volume. Because the jacks are placed obliquely in the jack guide and face alternately in opposite directions, any movement advances half the jacks but withdraws the other half; uniform lateral movement with respect to the strings is not possible. Similarly, because both strings of each pair form part...

Kulintang

Kulintang   Reference library

José Maceda

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,808 words
Illustration(s):
2

...these gaps have a wide range of measurements; in some old gong chimes intervals measure less than 20 or even 10 cents, and are accepted by local performers only because there are no other gongs available. Moreover, the distribution of narrow and wide steps within the eight-gong row varies, thus changing the measurements of 5ths and octaves. The scale structure of several kulintang produced by a rural gong factory in Cotabato, Mindanao, is approximately C–D–FF♯–G–A♯–B–C. Kulintang ensembles are used for feasts, weddings, celebrations, and entertainments. Whenever...

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

...am Main, 8 vols., 1977–82) M. Brinser : Dictionary of Twentieth Century Italian Violin Makers (Irvington, NJ, 1978) C. Taylor : ‘The New Violin Family and its Scientific Background’, Soundings , vol.7 (1978), 101–16 F. Prochart : Der Wiener Geigenbau im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Tutzing, 1979) F. Mele : ‘19th– and 20th–Century Violin Makers’, The Strad , vol.90/1074 (1979–80), 912–5 R.B. Nevin : ‘Violin Varnish’, The Strad , vol.90/1074 (1979–80), 446–8 P.L. Shirtcliff : ‘The Violin–Making Schools of Europe’, The Strad , vol.90/1074 (1979–80)...

Lamellaphone

Lamellaphone   Reference library

Gerhard Kubik and Peter Cooke

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
6,039 words
Illustration(s):
5

...of the lamellaphone’s history, countless forms developed in sub-Saharan Africa. Until about the middle of the 20th century, before the instruments disappeared from many areas in that region, there was great diversity in technical devices and playing techniques. In the wake of the slave trade, some types of lamellaphone spread from Africa to other regions of the world, including various parts of the Caribbean and Central and South America. There are large collections of lamellaphones from the late 19th and early 20th centuries in European museums. 2 . ...

Clavichord

Clavichord   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin, John Barnes, Alfons Huber, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, and Barry Kernfeld

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
10,819 words
Illustration(s):
1

...point there seems to be an error in the manuscript) are assigned in fours and threes corresponding to the following groups of notes: B–d, e♭ – f ♯, g–a, b♭ – c ♯′, d ′– e ′, f ′– g ♯′, and a ′– b ′. Except in the first of these groups, four keys are served by the same string only when the outermost notes form an augmented 2nd; whenever a fourth key would produce the interval of a minor 3rd (such as d ′– f or a ′– c ″) the number of tangents allotted to a single bichord is reduced to three. This arrangement allows practically any consonant chord to...

electronic music

electronic music   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
956 words
Illustration(s):
1

...term applied strictly to sounds synthesized electronically, to differentiate from musique concrète , which was assembled from normal music and everyday sounds, but today it covers both groups. Attempts to produce elec sounds began in the USA and Canada in the 1890s. Early in the 20th cent., experiments were made in Ger. by Fischinger ; and in USSR in the 1930s elec music was prod. by the use of photo‐electric techniques rather than by oscillator. In fact, the development of elec music has proceeded step by step with the invention of equipment: telephone,...

Recorder

Recorder   Reference library

David Lasocki

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
7,969 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: haute-contre, tierce , and grandes. In the early 20th century, Arnold Dolmetsch established the standard British terminology of sopranino (f ″ ), descant (c′′), treble (f′), tenor (c′), and bass (f). In the USA, following German practice (Altblockflöte, Sopranblockflöte), the treble is called the alto, and the descant the soprano. In recent years the recorder with lowest note f has sometimes been termed the basset, because larger sizes have become more widespread: great bass (c), contrabass (F), and subcontrabass (C) (also called bass, great bass, and...

Racket

Racket   Reference library

William Waterhouse

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,872 words
Illustration(s):
1

...). The configuration of the bore in each of these instruments is the mirror-image of that in the other. The body of each is 120 mm high and 48 mm in diameter; the nine ducts, each 6 mm wide, are plugged to form a bore totaling a little over a metre long. At intervals along this inner bore 17 holes are drilled at various angles, meeting up to form 11 external orifices which are stopped by the fingers and also three that vent the lowest note. There is also a water hole connecting through the bottom of the first duct. The positioning of the fingerholes...

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