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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

Blyden, Edward Wilmot   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,577 words
Illustration(s):
1

...United States were thwarted by the refusal of Rutgers Theological College and several other seminaries to admit him because he was black. Blyden became Liberia’s greatest intellectual. He completed his secondary education at Alexander High School, a Presbyterian missionary establishment, where he would later on serve as teacher and headmaster. Although Blyden’s formal education ended on his completion of secondary school, and he turned down a chance in 1861 to undertake university studies in England sponsored by prominent English admirers, he more than...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...collective security and early-warning arrangement to facilitate timely and efficient responses to conflicts and crisis situations in Africa” (Protocol, 2002 ). In addition, the AU’s new development strategy, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), includes the establishment of a new African peer review mechanism. It is designed to promote good governance within African countries, seen as one of the best ways to prevent domestic political conflicts from leading to coups, insurgency, or civil war. In conclusion, the idea(l) of pan-Africanism has...

Scientists, African

Scientists, African   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...published in 1967 in the journal Science , arguing that African societies should make scientific attitudes part of their own worldview. The essay attracted considerable attention in Africa, Europe, and America and eventually led to Odhiambo’s central role in the establishment of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Nairobi in 1969 . The ICIPE remains one of the most successful scientific institutions on the continent, drawing support from a large group of external donors. Odhiambo went on to help in the creation of...

Abolitionism

Abolitionism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,484 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the chieftaincy dispute between two Lagos princes, Kosoko and Akitoye. The British accused Kosoko of slave-dealing and assisted Akitoye, who was pro-British, in regaining his lost throne; Akitoye conceded that he would abolish slave trade. The bombardment of 1851 and the establishment of British political control over Lagos in 1861 made the coastal city the first part of present-day Nigeria to be placed under British rule. In Asante (part of present-day Ghana), the numerous battles between the kingdom and the British was precipitated by the need to force...

Baraka, Amiri

Baraka, Amiri   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,232 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Baraka attempted to employ this ideology. He recited the poetry of Hard Facts with the mannerisms of the black nationalist poems, but the social statements and political slogans also evoked the prototype of Langston Hughes’s socialist poems (Sollers, p. 233). In 1974 , the establishment of the Black Women’s United Front (BWUF) came on the heels of the ALSC Conference and the Sixth Pan-African Conference. The BWUF raised the consciousness of African American women, particularly women in the nationalist movement. The BWUF emerged at the International African...

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Garvey. The core of Garvey’s nationalist philosophy has been a constant in the African world for hundreds of years. Sometimes, as in the case of Booker T. Washington, it has clothed itself in relatively conservative garb. Washington was, after all, much loved by the types of establishment figures who harassed and jailed Garvey, and eventually deported him from the United States. In Elijah Muhammad’s post-Garvey Nation of Islam, Garveyite ideas appeared in what many may have perceived to be a more outwardly radical organization. Elements of Garvey’s ideas also...

African Art

African Art   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
4,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Osogbo and Tengenenge as artistic and cultural centers of international renown. This approach to art has been appreciated for its nonhierarchical and seemingly egalitarian understanding of art and the sheer drive it demonstrates in its challenge to the Western educational establishment which has come to dominate art training in Africa since the colonial period. It has been criticized for the conceptual and stylistic limitations of some of the artists associated with it. Another front in the creation of contemporary African art is embodied by those artists...

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