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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

anaesthesia, general

anaesthesia, general   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,944 words
Illustration(s):
1

...development, which stemmed from the generosity of Lord Nuffield, was the establishment in the University of Oxford of an academic research and teaching department with its own professor, the first in the UK. Anaesthesia developed rapidly during the second half of the 1940s, both in techniques and standards. During World War II many doctors were trained as anaesthetists in the Forces, and found hospital appointments on demobilization, during the run-up to the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948 , so expertise became much more widely...

New Zealand Wattlebirds

New Zealand Wattlebirds   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
655 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Fight to Save the Kokako Conservation and Environment Both living wattlebird species have been the subject of much concern to ornithologists in New Zealand, and the Department of Conservation has been active in preventing either from following the huia into extinction. The establishment of the saddleback on several predator-free islands forms one of the few major success stories in the management of endangered species. It is hoped that efforts along similar lines with the kokako will be as successful. The birds once occurred throughout the lowland forests of...

Emu

Emu   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
2

...big cities, but is no longer found where native vegetation has been cleared to provide agricultural land. Whatever the habitat, the emu must have access to fresh water, usually every day. Emus have probably benefited from man's activities in inland Australia, because the establishment of watering points for cattle and sheep has provided permanent water where there was none before. So much of Australia is unoccupied or used as open rangeland that the emu is in no danger of extinction. One curious episode in emu–human relations occurred in 1932 . Prompted by...

biostratigraphy

biostratigraphy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
864 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rock strata on the basis of their fossil content. Biostratigraphy had its origins in the late eighteenth century, when William Smith , a civil engineer, deduced that the same strata invariably occurred in consistent sequences and included unique assemblages of fossils. Its establishment as a discrete field of study is considered to have followed from the mid-nineteenth century work of Albert Oppel on Jurassic strata. The term ‘biostratigraphy’ was used first by Dollo in 1910 . Most of its current concepts had been formulated by the start of the twentieth...

Carboniferous

Carboniferous   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of each cycle was the establishment of a tropical forest, on the floor of which accumulated the plant debris that was to become almost a quarter of the world's total coal resources. In the southern parts of the USA, coal-bearing cycles of sedimentation gave rise to widespread but geographically variable units, known as cyclothems . Long-continued, and sometimes fierce, argument has concerned the underlying cause of this repetitive process. Repeated transgression by the sea was followed by sand and clay build-up and the establishment of a widespread and dense...

Skimmers

Skimmers   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,137 words
Illustration(s):
2

...have small nesting territories, with nests spaced 1–4 m (3.3–13 ft) apart, depending on vegetation and terrain. The degree to which birds nest at the same time (synchrony) can be very high in certain areas in the colony. Aggression is high during the period of territory establishment and egg‐laying, and both sexes engage in disputes over space and mates. The males are more aggressive toward other skimmers, while females more frequently interact with other species nesting nearby. Males incubate and brood more than females, at least during the day. Males and...

Waxwings and Silky Flycatchers

Waxwings and Silky Flycatchers   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,321 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Cedar waxwings mate assortatively (non-randomly, on the basis of shared characters) by the development of the red feather tips, and older mates fledge more young, indicating that diet-derived plumage characters are adaptive signals in mate selection. In North America the establishment of Eurasian honeysuckle shrubs has caused some Cedar waxwings to grow orange, rather than the normal yellow, tail bands. The honeysuckle fruits contain an unusual red carotenoid pigment that is deposited with yellow carotenoids, producing orange coloration when waxwings eat...

Colugos

Colugos   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,162 words
Illustration(s):
4

...supposed. However, their secretive and nocturnal lifestyle make it difficult to assess their status accurately. Nevertheless, as with many other rain forest mammals in southeast Asia, their best hope for long-term survival will be the provision of adequate protection by the establishment of reserves within their range. Kathy MacKinnon The Philippine colugo in “flight” with its gliding membrane (patagium) fully outstretched. During a measured glide between trees of 136m (450ft), one colugo was seen to lose only 12m (39ft) in height. A female Malayan...

development and growth: early childhood

development and growth: early childhood   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,070 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the world with confidence. Failure to develop appropriate learned patterns in early life can cause permanent disruption to the child's later emotional responses. Re-learning or restructuring of these learned processes is possible but difficult to achieve in later life. The establishment of the interneural connections associated with this learning requires the provision of an adequate supply of nutrients for brain growth as well as the environmental stimuli from the parents. Evolutionary processes in the mammal over the last 100 million years and in modern man...

Icterids

Icterids   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,940 words
Illustration(s):
4

...may represent its only hope. Four other West Indian icterids – the Martinique and St. Lucia orioles and the Yellow-shouldered and Jamaican blackbirds – are similarly threatened by habitat destruction and brood parasitism by the Shiny cowbirds. Cowbird control measures and the establishment of protected areas represent the best hope for these species. Forest clearance is the primary threat to the restricted-range icterids of tropical South America. The endangered Red-bellied grackle and the critically endangered Colombian mountain grackle are now confined to tiny...

karst

karst   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,606 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(speleothems) metres) uvalas) Large scale Karst plateaux, Dry valleys, None Major caves (100 m to plains, and cliffs gorges, poljes and cave and cave kilometres) chambers Fig. 2. The progressive decay of a surface drainage system as karstification proceeds, with the establishment of a swallow-hole at the contact between limestone and non-limestone rocks and the replacement of a valley by dolines. (After Drew, D. (1985); original drawing by J. Hanwell.) In the floor of the dry valley and at other locations between valleys, points at which rainwater is...

deafness

deafness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,286 words
Illustration(s):
2

...à l'usage de ceux qui entendent et qui parlent . Inspired by this work, in the nineteenth century sign-based education spread rapidly, though more easily in some countries than in others. Towards the end of the nineteenth century the tide turned. A leading figure in the re-establishment of speech-based education was Alexander Graham Bell , best known for his invention of the telephone. Bell had a deaf mother, worked initially as a teacher of the deaf, and subsequently married a deaf woman. Bell feared that the high rate of intermarriage among the deaf would...

pregnancy

pregnancy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to accommodate the growing fetus. It emerges from the pelvis at around 12 weeks, reaches the navel at around 22 weeks, and the ribs at around 36 weeks. Pregnancy normally reaches its dramatic conclusion with the onset of labour, between 35 and 39 weeks after conception. The establishment of antenatal care to detect problems during pregnancy, and to attempt to ensure that women were in good health at the time of delivery, is generally credited to J. W. Ballantyne , an Edinburgh obstetrician, who took the first step towards this at the beginning of the...

island arcs

island arcs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,718 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Pacific, off Indonesia, and in the Caribbean to suggest that large slabs might be dragged down beneath island arcs along subduction zones, which are commonly known as Benioff zones. It was nevertheless not until 1968 that the next significant advance was made. The establishment of the hypothesis of ocean-floor spreading in the 1960s had shown that new lithosphere was being continuously created ( see mid-ocean ridges ), and it was realized that unless the Earth was expanding (and at that time some geoscientists seriously argued in favour of this) an...

radioactive waste management

radioactive waste management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,241 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mixed wastes. Radioactive wastes are generated at all facilities where radioactive substances (radio-isotopes) are produced or, otherwise, handled directly. These include facilities supporting the industrial, agricultural, and medical application of radio-isotopes, research establishments (including most large universities), and all facilities involving the nuclear fuel cycle. The latter include the mining, milling, and enrichment of uranium, the fabrication of nuclear fuels, their ‘burning’ in nuclear reactors, and the reprocessing of spent fuel. Radioactive...

stratigraphy

stratigraphy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,127 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and using these values to obtain the age of their products at specific sites. The study and analysis of sections of annual clay and silt laminae (varves) from Quaternary lakes has had some success, and the measurement of the growth rings of long-lived trees has led to the establishment of dendrochronology as useful in archaeological and Holocene studies. Radiometric or isotopic dates, however, are the most favoured dating techniques; radiocarbon dating refers to isotope analysis of carbon from biological materials not older than about 140 000 years....

unconformity

unconformity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,825 words
Illustration(s):
3

...data now make it possible to recognize unconformities in seismic reflection profiles and also in geophysical well-log data. Most importantly of all, these unconformities (and indeed their correlative conformities) are used as the boundaries of stratigraphical units in the establishment of what is now termed sequence stratigraphy. The methodology of sequence stratigraphy has greatly augmented stratigraphical practice. It is found that such stratigraphical units and their bounding, regional unconformities provide an excellent means of mapping the distribution...

vegetation and climatic change

vegetation and climatic change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
3,531 words
Illustration(s):
1

...On much shorter timescales of 500 to 1000 years duration, however, vegetation responses or lag times appear to be relatively short. From our understanding of vegetation and climate interactions, it would appear that climate is the major driving force behind colonization and establishment, or removal, of vegetation within any area. However, on a local scale, site conditions must also be suitable if a plant is to establish itself. Physical factors such as soil development are important; the soil must provide nutrients in order for a plant to survive. Other...

Hyena Family

Hyena Family   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
3,561 words
Illustration(s):
6

...and then a den will be shared. Spotted hyenas are unusual amongst carnivores in that cubs are born with their eyes open and their teeth erupted. Litter mates, which are normally twins, engage in high levels of aggression within minutes of birth, which quickly leads to the establishment of a dominance hierarchy between siblings, allowing the dominant cub to control access to maternal milk. Sometimes this aggression will lead to the death of the smaller cub. This appears most likely to happen when resources are in short supply and probably insufficient to...

Right Whales

Right Whales   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,885 words
Illustration(s):
4

...if boats approach them too closely or too fast, and there is a risk of collisions. The rapid growth of the industry has resulted in concerns that it should be conducted in a sustainable, humane, and equitable manner, and the IWC has produced a framework to assist in the establishment of rules and guidelines. While recognizing that the rules have to be developed on a case-by-case basis, a number of general principles have been put forward: thus, the whales should be allowed to control the nature and the duration of the interactions; whalewatchers'boats...

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