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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Whewell, William

Whewell, William (1794–1866)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Again the existence of this proportion in the motions of any two planets, forms a set of facts which may all be combined by means of the conception of a certain central accelerating force , as was proved by Newton. The whole of our physical knowledge consists in the establishment of such propositions; and in all such cases facts are bound together by the aid of suitable conceptions. ( The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences , vol. 2, p. 202) This is Whewell's notion of induction . Not the empiricist putting one object after another until you have a...

Systems Theory

Systems Theory   Reference library

Eve Meltzer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,127 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the discourse of art as well as that for many, the system of all systems was the so-called Establishment and that, therefore, matters of power were most at issue. The American artist Robert Smithson, most remembered for his earthwork Spiral Jetty ( 1970 ), worked with systems of many sorts in his broad, multimedia oeuvre: perspectival, cartographic, mineralogical, among them. In response to the questionnaire, Smithson drafted an essay titled “The Establishment,” in which he, like Derrida, saw systems subtending everything. Only for Smithson, this...

Video

Video   Reference library

James M. Moran

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a unique video aesthetic can be read as the dialectical story of video’s simultaneous self-discovery and abnegation as a medium, which can be charted in three roughly chronological periods: video’s struggle for independence from the specificities of television, video’s establishment of autonomy as a medium with distinct inherent properties, and video’s return to indeterminacy as an adjunct technology of multimedia. Video as Anti-television. As an accident of history, video contested the tenets of technological determinism, a prescriptive discourse...

Land

Land   Reference library

Karen J. Wenell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...forms of anti-Judaism. Others have also preferred a more universal reading, attempting to deal with the question: in a post-Holocaust era, can one critique Israel and avoid the charge of anti-Semitism that potentially results from the strong connections between the establishment of the State of Israel and the Holocaust? Recently, Judith Butler has put forward an argument in dialogue with Jewish philosophy for a critique of Zionism that does not appeal to chosenness and particularity, but to social plurality. She states quite clearly: The only way to...

Fry, Roger Eliot

Fry, Roger Eliot (1866–1934)   Reference library

Michalle Gal

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to a philosophical anti-mimetic and formalist definition, utilizing the fundamental laws of expressive form. Fry tells us in “Art and Life” that “it was this revolution that Cézanne inaugurated and that Gauguin and Van Gogh continued … We may summarize them as the re-establishment of purely aesthetic criteria in place of criterion of conformity to appearance—the rediscovery of the principles of structural design and Harmony” ( 1981 , p. 8). Consequently, this movement was considered by Formalism to be the starting point of a new kind of philosophy and...

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Barry Hallen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and, in principle, universal in scope, it is difficult to reconcile this with the fact that they did not award masterpiece status to such objects from the very beginning. Although the status of the connoisseur remains relatively secure at the apex of the Western aesthetic establishment, such problems have inspired a growing number of critics to challenge the notion of an aesthetic overlord. Connoisseurs are said to be a product of Western cultures, and as such their aesthetic sensitivities must also be products of Western acculturation ( Clifford, 1988 )....

Food

Food   Reference library

Jèssica Jaques

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,795 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of taste and philosophy of food have been asymmetrical, the first being bridged much earlier than the second. Both relationships are consequences of seventeenth-century empiricism. Aesthetics has, at least partially, identified itself with the philosophy of taste since its establishment as a discipline in the eighteenth century. But only very recently has aesthetics engaged with the philosophy of food, its founding text being Deane Curtin’s and Lisa Heldke’s, Cooking, Eating, Thinking: Transformative Philosophies of Food ( 1992 ). Philosophy of food...

Pop Art

Pop Art   Reference library

Sara Doris

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,337 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the individual to achieve universal modes of expression. On a more prosaic note, it was noted, it had effectively preempted the role of the art critic—the art expert —in being embraced and taken up by galleries and nouveau riche collectors before the critical establishment had had an opportunity to pass judgment. Two years later in his essay “The Artworld,” aesthetician Arthur Danto would explore the philosophical implications of Pop’s internalization of the critical, or theoretical, function. A 1964 encounter with Warhol’s Brillo Boxes —sil...

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality   Reference library

Horea Avram

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...content to the urban tissue means not only to expand the city in the media sphere, but also to provoke complex interactions between architecture as a public statement and information as a personal discourse, or between the physical space as a corporate or institutional establishment and the subjective, socialized, networked user. Therefore, regardless the means employed or the types of experience provided, it is important to understand AR in general as a distinctive perceptual and aesthetic paradigm. What distinguishes AR from other media or artistic...

Bearden, Romare

Bearden, Romare (1911–1988)   Reference library

Jacqueline Francis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the profile of African American artists and black cultural expressions across the African diaspora. He was a founding member of Spiral, a New York-based black artists collective ( 1963–1965 ); an officer in the Harlem Cultural Council in the 1960s and 1970s; a force in the establishment of the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1968 ; a consultant to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library; and a speaker invited to numerous U.S. college campuses, libraries, and museums to give workshops and lecture on historical and contemporary...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Anne Hollander, Anne Hollander, Richard Martin, and Marie-Aude Baronian

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,019 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that the woman’s own taste was the only thing reflected in every aesthetic detail of her costume. Her income was reflected in its materials. Charles Frederick Worth ( 1825–1895 ), an Englishman who worked for a Parisian dry-goods shop before opening his innovative dressmaking establishment in 1858 , is acknowledged to be the founder of haute couture. This was a new French system whereby the design, construction, and embellishment of a woman’s garment and its accessories would be undertaken as a single creation by a named artist. Such an artist would thus...

Latin American Aesthetics

Latin American Aesthetics   Reference library

María Herrera, Elizabeth Millán, Hugo Moreno, Andrea Giunta, Tamara Stuby, and Rachel Weiss

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,176 words
Illustration(s):
6

...sickness, “confused” sexuality, isolationism, individualism, and dissonance. Key artists of the time, working in genres as varied as Pop, grotesque figuration, and cartoons—all of which had been identified as problematic—withdrew under intense pressure from the critical establishment, and their eventual exclusion or self-exclusion from visibility shows the sharp contradictions and tensions that were always present in the Cuban utopian scenario. In the 1970s the process of consolidation and institutionalization, much of it along Soviet lines, replaced the radical...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Richard Brilliant and Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,834 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in a confessional mode or with pseudo-third person distance, but has the great advantage of speaking in his or her own voice, however contrived. What, of course, separates the literary from the visual portrait is the space and time available to the writer, permitting the establishment of the changing contours of the subject’s presence over the years and revealing the transformation of body and spirit. In this regard, the literary portrait is surely more rounded, the multivalent interaction between the subject and his or her contemporaries more fully...

Monuments

Monuments   Reference library

Marita Sturken and James E. Young

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,047 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to operate as sites of tribute. These enormous structures, which are often also sites of worship, serve as a means to celebrate past leaders triumphantly and to compensate architecturally for the inadequacy of the corpse itself to evoke the impact of a life. Since the establishment of the codes of monumentality of classical forms, the history of monuments and memorials has often been one of marking history by referencing the architectural and artistic styles of the past. Thus, the Egyptian obelisk and the Roman triumphant arch are found in Paris and...

Politics

Politics   Reference library

Thijs Lijster, Steven C. Dubin, Mark Antliff, and James Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
19,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(medical, political, aesthetic) of the official AIDS world that climaxed in 1989 when ACT UP stormed the podium at the opening ceremonies of the Montreal International AIDS Conference. The activist demonstrations and art exhibitions at this critical collision of the AIDS establishment with its unorthodox opponents endeavored to shift concern away from artist-centered aesthetic issues toward the complex system of economic and political power relations in which the epidemic was being constructed to profit the institutions supposedly responsible for...

Romanticism

Romanticism   Reference library

Richard Eldridge, David E. Cooper, and Katherine Kolb

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,171 words
Illustration(s):
1

...past, neoclassical models of good taste and correctness, while reviving artists of power (William Shakespeare being the prime example) spurned by the neoclassics. The cult of Johann Sebastian Bach, the enthusiasm for early music in general, the primacy of German music, the establishment of a standard concert repertoire based on that primacy, and the idea of the musical work as a unified whole intended for performance “as written” all date from the Romantic period. Hoffmann’s “romantic” epithet must consequently be understood, in part, as polemical: It claimed...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Christopher Fitter, Holmes Rolston III, Daniel Joseph Nadenicek, and Allen A. Carlson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of arranging land to support human activity and ecological stability. The profession’s development was inextricably tied to a number of important aesthetic theories. Although the organization of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899 marks the official establishment of the profession, its evolution began during the early nineteenth century in the United States and was greatly influenced by eighteenth-century English explorations in landscape art. The general approach to landscape design in England shifted dramatically during the eighteenth...

Russian Aesthetics

Russian Aesthetics   Reference library

Victor V. Bychkov, Oleg V. Bychkov, Oleg V. Bychkov, William E. Harkins, and William E. Harkins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,323 words
Illustration(s):
1

...his aesthetic system transcends the boundaries of Russian religious aesthetics as such. The destiny of the last representatives of Russian religious aesthetics, like that of most of the Russian intelligentsia at the beginning of the twentieth century, was tragic. After the establishment of Communist rule, many were deported or forced to emigrate. Those who stayed in Russia fell victim to repression (e.g., Florensky, who was executed in a Stalinist concentration camp) or were forced to change their occupation (e.g., Losev, who devoted himself mainly to the...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

Indra Kagis McEwen, Bissera V. Pentcheva, James S. Ackerman, Erika Naginski, Karsten Harries, David Goldblatt, Kristina Luce, and Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
25,690 words
Illustration(s):
6

...radically altered forms, as grappling with ontology together with prolepsis. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the past and future of architecture appear alternately as opposing tendencies or coterminous forces. In many ways this tension was inaugurated by the establishment of the French Royal Academies in the second half of the seventeenth century, which unfolded as part of one of the more dramatic confrontations marking the history of Western aesthetics: the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. Battle lines were drawn between those who...

Origins of Aesthetics

Origins of Aesthetics   Reference library

Paul Oskar Kristeller, David Summers, and Simon Grote

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,652 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to circus performances and other public shows; and that the Académie de Musique and the Académie de Danse, like the projected Académie de Spectacles, were not organizations of distinguished professional artists or scientists, like the other academies, but merely licensed establishments for the regular preparation of public performances. Moreover, an extant paper from the time of Colbert that proposed to consolidate all academies in a single institution makes no clear distinction between the arts and the sciences and lends additional, though indirect,...

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