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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...RSC in 1964 , with Ian Holm as Harry, part of an ambitious presentation of the Second Tetralogy which staged it as a prelude to the First, famously condensed into the three-part The Wars of the Roses . This immense undertaking was repeated, in a very different manner, by Michael Bogdanov ’s English Shakespeare Company in 1985–6 , with Michael Pennington as a cold Harry and John Woodvine as a memorably cynical Sir John. Other notable Hal-Falstaff pairings in more recent times include William Houston and Desmond Barrit (RSC, 2000 ); Matthew...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...unprecedentedly free in versification—defies its onstage drama, with key events (including most of Antony and Cleopatra’s time together, and the decisive battle of Actium) evoked in language rather than shown on stage. The lovers’ glamorous past seems as significant as the coldly rational present (personified by the efficient Octavius Caesar) in which they are being defeated: during the last act Cleopatra’s poetic invocation of a heroic Antony seeks to upstage and eclipse the flawed failure whom the action of the play has in fact shown. In so far as she...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...still not been superseded. Later, 20 th -century book clubs included the *Büchergilde Gutenberg and the *Deutsche Buchgemeinschaft , both founded in 1924 . Among the newcomers after World War II were the Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft with 140,000 members, originally designed to reissue standard works of scholarship that had become unobtainable since the war, and the Bertelsmann Club (with some 4.7 million members and 300 branches in Germany alone). Among the inventions that led to cheap editions were wood-pulp paper—achieved as a practical process...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...were forced to cease publishing. Under the US occupation, which lasted from 1945 to 1952 , wartime censorship controls came to an end, though criticism of the Occupation authorities was not permitted in public media, and left-wingers again came under pressure during the Cold War. Nevertheless, the more liberal atmosphere encouraged a resurgence, and new magazines were launched with information about Western fashions or ways of life. Two of the leading publishers in Japan today are *Kōdansha and Shōgakukan . Kōdansha was founded in 1909 and...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...independent subsidiaries abroad—32 by the 1980s . At the same time, European publishers such as *Oxford University Press , *Elsevier , and *Springer opened offices in the US. The impetus for the internationalization of American publishing was partly political, given the Cold War perception that America needed to strengthen its cultural presence around the world. For the most part, however, the US book industry’s global expansion was the result of a quest for greater profits—a fact that underscored its similarity to other businesses. Still, many of the...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...commands Iago to kill Cassio and means to kill Desdemona himself. 3.4 Desdemona sends the clown to fetch Cassio. She is troubled about the loss of the handkerchief, which Emilia denies having seen. Othello arrives, and Desdemona tells him she has summoned Cassio: he feigns a cold and asks for the handkerchief. When she says she has lost it he tells her it was magically charmed to ensure the continuance of mutual love, given to his mother by a sorceress, and that its loss is ominous: as his questioning about it grows more urgent, she attempts to change the...

Berlin Wall

Berlin Wall   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
461 words
Illustration(s):
1

...toward the wall. It was breached that night and celebrations, televised worldwide, took place along its length. Given the Berlin Wall's earlier role, its fall marked the symbolic end of the Cold War. [ See also Berlin and Cold War . ] Bibliography Schweiger, Peter , ed. The Fall of the Berlin Wall: Reassessing the Causes and Consequences of the End of the Cold War . Palo Alto, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2000. Slusser, Robert M. The Berlin Crisis of 1961: Soviet-American Relations and the Struggle for Power in the Kremlin, June–November, 1961 ....

Fronts

Fronts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,597 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or triple point, move apart with time. The cyclone reaches maturity with the occlusion stage and weakens thereafter. In the classical concept of the occluded front, if the air behind the cold front is colder and thus denser than the cold air ahead of the warm front, the cold front will undercut the warm front, forming a cold-type occlusion. If the reverse is true, the cold front, upon reaching the warm front, will ride up the warm frontal surface, forming a warm-type occlusion. Various attempts have been made to verify the existence and structure of occluded...

Korean War

Korean War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,729 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to deepen Cold War rivalries and tensions that would continue for decades after 1953 . Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that divides North and South Korea remains one of the most heavily fortified and tense borders in the world. [ See also Cold War ; Korea ; and United States, subentry The Cold War and the American Century . ] Bibliography Chen Jian . China's Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation . New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Cumings,...

Tokyo War Crimes Trial

Tokyo War Crimes Trial   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
972 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mamoru , were sentenced to twenty-year and Tokyo Tribunal. Former Japanese Prime Minister Kuniaki Koiso defends himself in the witness stand at the international military tribunal on war crimes committed during World War II in Tokyo, Japan, November 1947. AP Images seven-year terms, respectively. Because of the changing political climate occasioned by the Cold War, all those sentenced to prison were either paroled or pardoned by 1958 . Although a majority of the judges concurred on the court's final verdicts, five justices filed individual opinions...

Espionage and Intelligence Agencies

Espionage and Intelligence Agencies   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,435 words
Illustration(s):
1

...U.S. military attaché Colonel Philip R. Faymonville; the United States government; and the top-secret Manhattan Project through the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg spy ring, Donald Maclean, and the scientists Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall. World War II and the Cold War. In the field of SIGINT, between World War I and World War II the United States broke enemy codes, deciphering both the German and the Japanese encryption systems. Almost in the same period, cryptanalysts of the Polish Cipher Bureau (Biuro Szyfrów), in Warsaw, penetrated the German Enigma encryption...

McCarthyism

McCarthyism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
689 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the polarization between the “free world” represented by the United States and its allies and the “international Communist conspiracy” led by the USSR, which would constitute the rhetorical basis of the Cold War. Fears of Soviet imperialism abroad and of un-American activities at home contributed to the rise of McCarthyism. Immediately after World War II, tensions between the United States and Soviet Russia surfaced. The establishment of a puppet regime in Poland in 1946 and the Berlin blockade in 1948 made Americans suspicious of Soviet ambitions in...

Summit Meetings

Summit Meetings   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,232 words
Illustration(s):
1

...host/chair (“G8 History”). Assessment. While an outgrowth of World War II, summits are really a creature of the Cold War. This era demonstrated that world powers had become inseparably intertwined. The meetings illustrate the growing recognition that national economies can no longer exist in isolation; that in the atomic era, wars carry unacceptable worldwide consequences—and that both of these concerns can be addressed through negotiation rather than confrontation. [ See also Cold War and Peace Conferences . ] Bibliography Cannon, Lou . President...

Ice

Ice   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from the 1840s to the 1860s. The refrigerated transport of meat came later. Until the late 1860s local butchers had slaughtered their own animals and chilled the meat in walk-in cold-storage boxes supplied with lake or river ice. Frozen meat was common in colder climates, where farmers and ranchers butchered their cattle and sheep in early winter, then packed the meat in outside cold boxes filled with ice and snow. The first shipload of commercially frozen beef was transported in 1869 from Indianola, Texas, to New Orleans, Louisiana, where it was served in...

War and Economic History

War and Economic History   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...controversy. Despite its pump-priming potential in specific circumstances, as during the 1930s, military spending generally acts to slow economic growth, since it diverts capital and labor from more productive investment, such as in roads, schools, or basic research. During the Cold War, high military spending contributed (among other causes) to the economic stagnation of the Soviet Union and the collapse of North Korea, whereas low military spending relative to GDP contributed to Japan's growth and innovation. During the 1990s, as real military spending...

Yalta Conference

Yalta Conference   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,310 words
Illustration(s):
1

...also Cold War ; and World War II, subentry Europe . ] Bibliography Clemens, Diane Shaver . Yalta. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. A detailed study of the conference, and perhaps the leading revisionist work on Yalta, stressing American responsibility for the ensuing Cold War. Dallek, Robert . Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Still the most authoritative treatment of Roosevelt's diplomacy. Edmonds, Robin . The Big Three: Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin in Peace and War . New...

Indochina War, First

Indochina War, First   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,197 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reasons, but the Vietminh still retained its political base. Then, in October 1949 , the Chinese Communist Party's triumph in China's civil war presented the threat of increased external support for the communist-led Vietminh. In February 1950 the new government of China recognized the DRV as the government of Vietnam, and the Indochina War began to appear to be more than a colonial war. By 1950 the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was transforming all of international politics into a perceived contest between communist and...

Arms, Armaments, and the Armaments Industry

Arms, Armaments, and the Armaments Industry   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,423 words
Illustration(s):
1

...integrated fully into the society of the state at war. This ensured the second phase: though wars did last longer—this changed in the nineteenth century, as mentioned earlier, during the U.S. Civil War—their effects were quantitatively and qualitatively greater on an industrial system under direct attack by an enemy. The Cold War saw the introduction of the theoretical sciences—that is, nuclear physics among other disciplines—into the equation that a nation would use to determine its capability to wage a war successfully. At the beginning of the twenty-first...

Moscow, battle of

Moscow, battle of (1941)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
585 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Moscow, and Tenth Army attacking from the south, past Tula. The Soviet reserves, well equipped against the winter cold, struck German forces that were exhausted, paralysed by the bitter cold, and at the limit of their lines of supply. Large areas were still held by partizans behind the German lines, and the Soviet forces tried to link up with them using airborne forces . The Red Army recaptured thousands of villages—crucial shelter in the cold—and the German salients north and south of the city were driven back. Airborne and cavalry corps penetrated the...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with no hope of being delivered. The rasputiza , and especially the cold, caused a loss of momentum for the German offensive. On 6 December, the Battle for Moscow was abandoned by the Germans. This enabled the Soviet army to launch its first major counteroffensive of the war. In the continued fighting, the number of casualties caused by cold increased to such an extent that in the last days of December, the number of German troops lost through frostbite, and other consequences of cold, exceeded the number lost through enemy action. Bibliography Douglas, K....

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