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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was famous across Europe. In the northern Netherlands, there was almost no book illumination before 1400 . Utrecht, like Bruges, became important from about the 1430s , with painters such as the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg and the supreme, but not prolific, Master of Catherine of Cleves, illuminator of the eponymous book of hours (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 917 and M. 945). Later in the century, distinctive styles of Dutch illumination and coloured penwork point to notable production in Delft, Haarlem, and almost certainly Zwolle, in the...

maze

maze   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Society and culture, Lifestyle, Home, and garden, Art & Architecture
Length:
595 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in gardens in the Middle Ages—at Hesdin in northern France by 1311 and at the Hôtel de Tournelles in Paris in 1431 . They were found in later French gardens such as Catherine de Médicis 's Tuileries Palace ( see Paris parks and gardens ) made between 1564 and 1572 and in the Petit Parc at Versailles by 1677 . An attractive late 20th-century example, designed by Bernard Lassus , may be seen in the Jardin des Retours . In Italy several patterns are shown in a book by Giovanni Fontana of c .1420 and mazes were found in several Renaissance...

washed-rind cheeses

washed-rind cheeses   Reference library

David Gremmels

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
849 words
Illustration(s):
1

...weeks. Soft and creamy, Red Hawk has a pungent, fruity, and slightly beefy flavor. See red hawk . See also brining ; brushing ; and washed-curd cheeses . Almena-Aliste, Montserrat , and Bernard Mietton . “Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.” In Cheese and Microbes , edited by Catherine W. Donnelly . Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2014. Decker, John W. Cheese Making: Cheddar, Swiss, Brick, Limburger, Edam, Cottage, Etc. Columbus, Oh.: n.p., 1905. Kindstedt, Paul . American Farmstead Cheese...

Vasa

Vasa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,506 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and wood-carver, grandson of (1) Gustav I. He was the son of John III , King of Sweden ( reg 1568–92 ), and Catherine Jagiellon ( 1526–83 ), daughter of Sigismund I (Sigismund the Old), King of Poland; he became the elected King of Poland in 1587 and in 1594 also became hereditary King of Sweden. Educated at the court in Stockholm by the Swede Nils Rasch , the Livonian Arnold Grothus ( c. 1522–99 ) and the Polish Jesuit Pakosz Bernard Gołyński ( 1546–99 ), Sigismund was a learned man and spoke several languages. Initially he had his court in...

Giovanni da Milano

Giovanni da Milano (fl c. 1346–69)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a terminus ad quem of 1363 since, according to the inscription, it was commissioned by Francesco da Tieri , prior of the Ospedale of Prato from 1334 until his death in 1363 . The polyptych shows the Virgin and Child Enthroned (in poor condition) flanked by SS Catherine and Bernard and SS Bartholomew and Barnabas (to whom the church of the Ospedale was dedicated). The main tier was supported by a double predella. The first, similar to that of Bernardo Daddi’s S Pancrazio polyptych Giovanni da Milano.   Man of Sorrows , tempera on panel,...

Paris

Paris   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,402 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Catherine's garden contained features such as fountains, a maze and an enormous sundial. Some compartments contained fruit trees, and there were also trees planted in quincunx, with one tree at each corner and the fifth in the middle; the decussation (if viewed from above) was significant in the numerology of the period, and the feature subsequently appeared in English gardens of the 16th and 17th centuries. Elsewhere in Catherine's garden there was a ceramic grotto decorated with terracotta figures by the potter and naturalist bernard Palissy . In...

Stained glass

Stained glass   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,670 words
Illustration(s):
2

...restore artistic and liturgical aspects of Catholicism. Many windows were made in the 1620s and 1630s by Bernard van Linge ( b c. 1600 ) and Abraham van Linge ( fl 1625–41 ), originally from Emden, in Germany; Bernard introduced from Paris the continental style of painting enamel pigments on to clear glass rectangular panes, thereby eliminating the design role of the leads. Their work survives in various Oxford and Cambridge college chapels; Bernard glazed Wadham Chapel ( 1622 ), Oxford; from 1628 to 1641 Abraham painted windows for the college chapels...

Vellert [Felaert; Vellaert; Staren, van], Dirk [Dieric] (Jacobszoon)

Vellert [Felaert; Vellaert; Staren, van], Dirk [Dieric] (Jacobszoon) (c.1480–85)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,471 words
Illustration(s):
3

...by Claes Mathyssen at the church of St Catherine at Hoogstraeten. These windows show similarities in composition and figure type to the glass at King's College and Lübeck. Although Vellert's prints did not have the enormous impact of those of either Dürer or Lucas van Leyden, they were often copied by artists such as the Master S and Allaert Claez . They were also frequently used as patterns for glass roundels, and a stained-glass window in the church of Conches, near Evreux, is based on the Vision of St Bernard . Hollstein : Dut. & Flem . L....

British Literature

British Literature   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,690 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to use the setting of the Napoleonic Wars: Bernard Cornwell (pseudonym of Bernard Wiggins), creator of Richard Sharpe; C. S. Forester (pseudonym of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith), creator of Horatio Hornblower; Alexander Kent (pseudonym of Douglas Reeman), creator of Richard Bolitho ; Patrick O'Brian (pseudonym of Richard Patrick Russ), creator of the Aubrey/Maturin series; and C. Northcote Parkinson , creator of Richard Delancey . Other writers of historical fiction include Charlotte Bingham , Catherine Cookson , Margaret Drabble , George...

L’Orme [Delorme], Philibert de

L’Orme [Delorme], Philibert de (June 1514)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
4,483 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or celestial globe. (iii) Works for Catherine de’ Medici, 1563–70. Two days after Henry II's unexpected death on 10 July 1559 , de L’Orme was dismissed from his royal post and replaced by Francesco Primaticcio . This was perhaps the result of intrigues by the powerful Lorraine faction at court, but de L’Orme's tight control over the royal building works and the arrogant exercise of his powers had made him many enemies. As early as 1557 Pierre Ronsard had published some satirical verses aimed at him, and the potter Bernard Palissy recorded de L’Orme's...

church history

church history   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,513 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as servants of the French king. Institutional authority broke down further in the face of absentee clerics who held multiple church offices and provided inadequate religious guidance. The popularity of *pilgrimages and the cult of the saints were revived, and mystics like *Catherine of Siena and Meister *Eckhart became influential. The *laity found alternate means of spiritual consolation, joining lay brotherhoods or the Beguines, a semi-monastic woman’s movement ( see beghards and beguines ). Despite these difficulties, the church remained one of...

Eremitism

Eremitism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...internazionale di studio, Mendola, 30 agosto – 6 settembre 1962 , Milan, 1965. “ Eremita ”, DIP , 3, 1976, 1153 f. H. Leyser , Hermits and the New Monasticism. A study of Religious Communities in Western Europe 1000-1150 , London, 1984. G.-M. Oury , Les Moines , Paris, 1987. Catherine...

Brosse, Salomon de

Brosse, Salomon de (c.1571)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,355 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (Rome, 1562 ) and by the suite of Mannerist gateway designs appended to that treatise. Blérancourt was built for Bernard Potier, whose wife, Charlotte de Vieuxpont, was an active and learned patron. She had travelled in Italy, collected architectural drawings and admired Vignola's work, and she stipulated in the contracts that there should be correct classical detail at Blérancourt. The château of Coulommiers was begun in 1613 for Catherine de Gonzague, Duchesse de Longueville. It was built on a badly chosen site and was an over-ambitious project;...

Crucifix

Crucifix   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the iconoclastic controversies ( 726–843 ). Thus iconographic precedents for the suffering Christ existed in such Byzantine works as the narthex mosaic Crucifixion ( c. 1025 ) at Hosios Loukas, Phokis, and among the icons at St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai. The development of the curved body of Christ in the 13th century was often accompanied by a change in the positioning of secondary figures. In Cimabue’s Santa Croce Crucifix of c. 1285 mentioned above, for example, the figures of the Virgin and St John...

Northcote, James

Northcote, James (22 October 1746)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,701 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in White , GBP 105 London, 17 Dec 1926 : Mrs Alexander Maconochie , GBP 945; Alexander Maconochie , GBP 378 London, 2 March 1928 : Miss Shepherd , GBP 840 London, 8 June 1928 : Mrs Smith Barwell , GBP 1,680 London, 14 Dec 1928 : Miss Catherine Leicester , GBP 2,835 London, 15 May 1929 : Harriet Bernard Morland , GBP 220 London, 28 Feb 1930 : Diligence ; Dissipation (four paintings) GBP 735 London, 14 March 1930 : Colonel Black , GBP 525 London, 11 July 1930 : Lady Mary Lygon , GBP 1,207 New York, 2 April 1931 : Mrs Robinson , USD 450...

Opera companies, itinerant

Opera companies, itinerant   Reference library

Katherine K. Preston

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,504 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Music in America: Women Patrons and Activists since 1860 , ed. R.P. Locke and C. Barr (Berkeley, 1997), 134–63 B.F. Walsh : “Catherine Hayes An Early Donizetti Prima Donna,” OQ , xiv/3 (1998), 45–54 E.H. Cropsey : Crosby's Opera House: Symbol of Chicago's Cultural Awakening (Madison, 1999) J.C. Ottenberg : “Gustav Hinrichs and Opera in Philadelphia 1888–1896,” OQ , xv/2 (1999), 197–223 B.F. Walsh : Catherine Hayes (1818–1861): The Hibernian Prima Donna (Dublin, 2000) J. McPherson : “The Savage Innocents. Part I, King of the Castle: Henry W....

Fairy Tales and Folk Tales

Fairy Tales and Folk Tales   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,901 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., or fairy tale. By 1690 , various authors such as Madame d'Aulnoy and Mademoiselle Bernard began to incorporate fairy tales into their novels and then publish entire collections of fairy tales. A veritable vogue if not a deluge of fairy tales appeared from 1696 to 1704 in France. Madame d'Aulnoy, Mademoiselle L'Héritier , Charles Perrault , Madame de la Force , Madame Durand , Mademoiselle Lubert , Madame de Murat , Chevalier de Mailly , Mademoiselle Bernard, and other gifted writers published remarkable collections of fairy tales. The most...

Avignon

Avignon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the inhabitants put their city on its feet again. CONVENTS were even founded outside the walls, in particular those of the Dominicans , Franciscans , Augustinians and Carmelites , near the gates. Other houses like those of the nuns of St Lawrence, St Clare or St Catherine, the buildings of the commandery of St John and the hospitallers of St Anthony, and numerous hospitals arose intra muros . It was at this time that the peaceful little city – which numbered some 6000 inhabitants at the start of the 14th c. – experienced a prodigious event:...

Valois, House of

Valois, House of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
11,308 words
Illustration(s):
8

...at Fontainebleau, Nicolò dell’Abate and Ruggiero de Ruggieri ( d 1596 ), as well as the French Dumonstier family and Antoine Caron . The inventory drawn up after Catherine's death reveals the extent of her collections, which included, among other objects, a library of 4500 volumes, 259 painted enamels, including 32 portraits set into the panelling of a room, 141 pieces of ceramics by Bernard Palissy (who had also created a rustic grotto (destr.) for the Jardins des Tuileries), tapestries, antiquities and all kinds of precious objects. Among surviving...

Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,195 words
Illustration(s):
2

...See also Slavic Languages . Bibliography Browne, Wayles . 1974. On the problem of enclitic placement in Serbo-Croatian. In Slavic transformational syntax , edited by Richard D. Brecht and Catherine V. Chvany , pp. 36–52. Ann Arbor: Dept. of Slavic Languages, University of Michigan. Browne, Wayles . 1993. Serbo-Croat. In The Slavonic languages , edited by Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett , pp. 306–387. London: Routledge. Gvozdanović, Jadranka . 1980. Tone and accent in Standard Serbo-Croatian, with a synopsis of Serbo-Croatian phonology ....

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