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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

church history

church history   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,513 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as servants of the French king. Institutional authority broke down further in the face of absentee clerics who held multiple church offices and provided inadequate religious guidance. The popularity of *pilgrimages and the cult of the saints were revived, and mystics like *Catherine of Siena and Meister *Eckhart became influential. The *laity found alternate means of spiritual consolation, joining lay brotherhoods or the Beguines, a semi-monastic woman’s movement ( see beghards and beguines ). Despite these difficulties, the church remained one of...

Eremitism

Eremitism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...internazionale di studio, Mendola, 30 agosto – 6 settembre 1962 , Milan, 1965. “ Eremita ”, DIP , 3, 1976, 1153 f. H. Leyser , Hermits and the New Monasticism. A study of Religious Communities in Western Europe 1000-1150 , London, 1984. G.-M. Oury , Les Moines , Paris, 1987. Catherine...

Avignon

Avignon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the inhabitants put their city on its feet again. CONVENTS were even founded outside the walls, in particular those of the Dominicans , Franciscans , Augustinians and Carmelites , near the gates. Other houses like those of the nuns of St Lawrence, St Clare or St Catherine, the buildings of the commandery of St John and the hospitallers of St Anthony, and numerous hospitals arose intra muros . It was at this time that the peaceful little city – which numbered some 6000 inhabitants at the start of the 14th c. – experienced a prodigious event:...

Marriage

Marriage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,643 words
Illustration(s):
1

...love , marriage and life in the Holy Spirit. As for teaching on the “ends” or “benefits” ( bona ) of marriage, it evolved in a variable way in the course of the whole Middle Ages and sometimes in a single theologian, like St Thomas Aquinas. Marriage . Relief of the font, St Catherine's chapel, St Stephen's, Vienna. E. M. Makowski , “The Conjugal Debt and Medieval Canon Law”, JMH , 3, 1977, 99-114. J. Leclercq , Monks on marriage: a twelfth-century view , New York, 1982. “ L'Amour et le mariage selon les lettres d'Yves de Chartres ”, StCan , 22, 1983,...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
10,187 words
Illustration(s):
2

...he then had. Although intended to promote imperial unity when he died, his ordonnance created friction and jealousy, particularly given the ambitions of Louis ’s nephew Bernard —son of Charlemagne ’s son Pepin of Aquitaine ( 800–38 )—whom Charlemagne had entrusted with *Italy . Dissension led to rebellion, ruthlessly repressed, and to Louis ’s *penance in 822 for Bernard ’s blinding and death in 818 . The situation was further complicated by the birth of Charles (later called ‘the Bald’) to Louis ’s second wife in 823 . Between 829 and...

Giovanni da Milano

Giovanni da Milano (fl c. 1346–69)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a terminus ad quem of 1363 since, according to the inscription, it was commissioned by Francesco da Tieri , prior of the Ospedale of Prato from 1334 until his death in 1363 . The polyptych shows the Virgin and Child Enthroned (in poor condition) flanked by SS Catherine and Bernard and SS Bartholomew and Barnabas (to whom the church of the Ospedale was dedicated). The main tier was supported by a double predella. The first, similar to that of Bernardo Daddi’s S Pancrazio polyptych Giovanni da Milano.   Man of Sorrows , tempera on panel,...

Crucifix

Crucifix   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the iconoclastic controversies ( 726–843 ). Thus iconographic precedents for the suffering Christ existed in such Byzantine works as the narthex mosaic Crucifixion ( c. 1025 ) at Hosios Loukas, Phokis, and among the icons at St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai. The development of the curved body of Christ in the 13th century was often accompanied by a change in the positioning of secondary figures. In Cimabue’s Santa Croce Crucifix of c. 1285 mentioned above, for example, the figures of the Virgin and St John...

Stained glass

Stained glass   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
11,937 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Tree of Jesse window (before 1218 ) of Freiburg im Breisgau Cathedral and the windows of St Margarete, Ardagger ( 1226–41 ), used armatures that followed the medallions. Alternating round and half-round panels surrounded by wide, curving lattice, as seen in the St Catherine window ( 1180 ) of Angers Cathedral, are typical of later work. Around 1200 in France and England curvilinear armature patterns were associated with the most important programmes under construction. The choir windows at Bourges ( c. 1200–14 ), like those at Canterbury ( c. ...

Duccio (di Buoninsegna)

Duccio (di Buoninsegna) (fl 1278)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
8,351 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Body of the Virgin to the Tomb , which were back-to-back, have not been truncated like the rest of the scenes. The main front panel (Siena, Mus. Opera Duomo) shows the Virgin and Child seated on a marble throne inlaid with cosmati, surrounded by 20 angels and SS Catherine, Paul, John the Baptist, Peter, and Agnes. Kneeling before them are the patron saints of Siena—SS Ansanus, Sabinus, Crescentius, and Victor. The strong civic theme, typical of commissions in Siena, which was dedicated to the Virgin, is further emphasized in the inscription...

London

London   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
18,800 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reduction of their mass. The west gable (1735) and towers (1734–45) are by Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661/2–1736). In 1503–9 the early 13th-century Lady Chapel was replaced by a new chapel intended to contain the shrine of the canonized Henry VI together with the tombs of his mother, Catherine of Valois (1401–37), and Henry VII, his wife, Elizabeth of York ( d 1503), and his mother, Margaret Beaufort. The campaign for Henry VI’s canonization languished, and his body remained buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. The internal elevations of the Westminster...

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