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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was famous across Europe. In the northern Netherlands, there was almost no book illumination before 1400 . Utrecht, like Bruges, became important from about the 1430s , with painters such as the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg and the supreme, but not prolific, Master of Catherine of Cleves, illuminator of the eponymous book of hours (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 917 and M. 945). Later in the century, distinctive styles of Dutch illumination and coloured penwork point to notable production in Delft, Haarlem, and almost certainly Zwolle, in the...

Arctic

Arctic   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
5,095 words
Illustration(s):
4

...to map the coast from there to the west. Laptev explored again in the summer of 1741 , but he failed to map the Chukchi Peninsula—a feat that was not, in fact, accomplished until early in the nineteenth century by Ferdinand von Wrangell and his men, who traveled by land. Catherine II ( r. 1762–1796 ) also initiated exploring expeditions; for example, she sent Lieutenant Ivan Sindt to the Aleutian Islands in 1764 . In 1768–1769 , Pytor Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev explored Unalaska and Umnak in the Aleutian Islands, as well as the southern...

Sciences

Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,174 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( 1706–1749 ), Voltaire's mistress, published several scientific studies of her own including an annotated translation of Newton's Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica . Women also became known in the field of anatomical model‐making. Two of these women, Marie Catherine Biheron ( 1719–1786 ) and Anna Morandi Manzolini ( 1716–1774 ), were especially prominent. By the nineteenth century, the number of women in science had increased. At the end of the eighteenth century, Mary Wollstonecraft ( 1759–1797 ) had proposed a theory of equality in...

British Literature

British Literature   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,690 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to use the setting of the Napoleonic Wars: Bernard Cornwell (pseudonym of Bernard Wiggins), creator of Richard Sharpe; C. S. Forester (pseudonym of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith), creator of Horatio Hornblower; Alexander Kent (pseudonym of Douglas Reeman), creator of Richard Bolitho ; Patrick O'Brian (pseudonym of Richard Patrick Russ), creator of the Aubrey/Maturin series; and C. Northcote Parkinson , creator of Richard Delancey . Other writers of historical fiction include Charlotte Bingham , Catherine Cookson , Margaret Drabble , George...

church history

church history   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,513 words
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...as servants of the French king. Institutional authority broke down further in the face of absentee clerics who held multiple church offices and provided inadequate religious guidance. The popularity of *pilgrimages and the cult of the saints were revived, and mystics like *Catherine of Siena and Meister *Eckhart became influential. The *laity found alternate means of spiritual consolation, joining lay brotherhoods or the Beguines, a semi-monastic woman’s movement ( see beghards and beguines ). Despite these difficulties, the church remained one of...

Eremitism

Eremitism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...internazionale di studio, Mendola, 30 agosto – 6 settembre 1962 , Milan, 1965. “ Eremita ”, DIP , 3, 1976, 1153 f. H. Leyser , Hermits and the New Monasticism. A study of Religious Communities in Western Europe 1000-1150 , London, 1984. G.-M. Oury , Les Moines , Paris, 1987. Catherine...

Avignon

Avignon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the inhabitants put their city on its feet again. CONVENTS were even founded outside the walls, in particular those of the Dominicans , Franciscans , Augustinians and Carmelites , near the gates. Other houses like those of the nuns of St Lawrence, St Clare or St Catherine, the buildings of the commandery of St John and the hospitallers of St Anthony, and numerous hospitals arose intra muros . It was at this time that the peaceful little city – which numbered some 6000 inhabitants at the start of the 14th c. – experienced a prodigious event:...

Ex Voto

Ex Voto   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in ex voto offerings as Our Lady of Health, Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of the Light, Our Lady of the Apparition, or Our Lady of Consolation. Less frequent are devotions directed to other saints, such as Saint Nicholas , Saint Joseph , or Saint Catherine , and these often appear in the company of the Madonna. Only a few ex voto paintings carry the image of Jesus Christ, crowned with thorns, carrying the cross, crucified, or risen with the cross in hand. Paintings were commissioned by individuals or purchased, often from...

Marriage

Marriage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,643 words
Illustration(s):
1

...love , marriage and life in the Holy Spirit. As for teaching on the “ends” or “benefits” ( bona ) of marriage, it evolved in a variable way in the course of the whole Middle Ages and sometimes in a single theologian, like St Thomas Aquinas. Marriage . Relief of the font, St Catherine's chapel, St Stephen's, Vienna. E. M. Makowski , “The Conjugal Debt and Medieval Canon Law”, JMH , 3, 1977, 99-114. J. Leclercq , Monks on marriage: a twelfth-century view , New York, 1982. “ L'Amour et le mariage selon les lettres d'Yves de Chartres ”, StCan , 22, 1983,...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
10,187 words
Illustration(s):
2

...he then had. Although intended to promote imperial unity when he died, his ordonnance created friction and jealousy, particularly given the ambitions of Louis ’s nephew Bernard —son of Charlemagne ’s son Pepin of Aquitaine ( 800–38 )—whom Charlemagne had entrusted with *Italy . Dissension led to rebellion, ruthlessly repressed, and to Louis ’s *penance in 822 for Bernard ’s blinding and death in 818 . The situation was further complicated by the birth of Charles (later called ‘the Bald’) to Louis ’s second wife in 823 . Between 829 and...

Universities

Universities   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,777 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of theology, law, and medicine were urged to abandon their emphasis on theoretical speculation and concentrate on inculcating their charges with practical and certain knowledge, wherever possible using more stimulating methods of teaching. As Diderot's reform plan, presented to Catherine the Great in 1775–1776 , makes particularly clear, the enlightened university was not to be an ivory tower but a school for good and useful citizens. Although these Enlightened critics gained the ear of many rulers and their advisers in the second half of the century, there was...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,687 words
Illustration(s):
1

...world shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, and with that the military balance also changed. The Ottomans continued to hold their own into the eighteenth century, even besieging Vienna for the second time in 1683 . However, the loss of Muslim Crimea to Russia's Catherine the Great and the Treaty of Kücük Kaynarca ( 1774 ), followed by Napoleon's invasion of Egypt ( 1798 ), exposed the urgent need for reform so as to create a modern state. The opposition of the Janissary army in alliance with the ulema, the clerical class, made structural reform...

Mosaics

Mosaics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,024 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Roman ; Games, subentry Roman Games ; Gladiators and Gladiatorial Games ; Hunting, Roman ; Plato ; Poetry, Latin, subentry Epic ; Virgil ; Wine ; and Women, subentry Women in Latin Literature .] Bibliography Andreae, Bernard . Antike Bildmosaiken . Mainz am Rhein, Germany: P. von Zabern, 2003. Balmelle, Catherine , et al. Le décor géométrique de la mosaïque romaine . 2 vols. 2nd ed. Paris: Picard, 2002. Balty, Janine . Mosaïques antiques de Syrie . Brussels, Belgium: Centre Belge de Recherches Archéologiques à Apamée de Syrie, 1977....

Concert music

Concert music   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,006 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Church of Park Manor. Throughout her life Jackson was an active participant in her family’s Jacksonian Community Center, which offered young people music and dance lessons, education, and spiritual training. Along with her mother, Gertrude Jackson Taylor , and sister, Catherine Jackson Adams , she toured the country and performed in Chicago public schools as a member of the Jacksonian Trio and the Imperial Opera Company. Marie Lucas ( c. 1880-1947 ) was a musician and society orchestra conductor and organizer. Lucas was born in Denver, Colorado , to...

Poetry, Greek

Poetry, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
29,051 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Classica , ser. 3, 10 (1992): 965–978. Bremen, Riet van . “The Entire House Is Full of Crowns: Hellenistic Agōnes and the Commemoration of Victory.” In Pindar's Poetry, Patrons, and Festivals: From Archaic Greece to the Roman Empire , edited by Simon Hornblower and Catherine Morgan , pp. 345–375. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. On Hellenistic epinician poems, with previous bibliography, including that on the New Posidippus. D’Alessio, Giovan Battista , ed. Callimaco . 2 vols. 4th ed. Milan: Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli, 2007. A Greek...

Navies, Great Powers

Navies, Great Powers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
52,890 words
Illustration(s):
5

...thousand, and growth was sustained into the 1750s. Not all ships were active, but by the war against Prussia of 1757–1762 the Russians could mobilize more than twenty ships of the line. This force was used defensively, but when Russia declared war on Turkey in 1768 , Catherine II (also called “the Great”) had a wider strategic vision. Admiral Count Aleksei Orlov was ordered to sail from the Baltic to the eastern Mediterranean with a powerful squadron officered by Scottish sailors. With British logistical support the Russians established a base at...

Giovanni da Milano

Giovanni da Milano (fl c. 1346–69)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a terminus ad quem of 1363 since, according to the inscription, it was commissioned by Francesco da Tieri , prior of the Ospedale of Prato from 1334 until his death in 1363 . The polyptych shows the Virgin and Child Enthroned (in poor condition) flanked by SS Catherine and Bernard and SS Bartholomew and Barnabas (to whom the church of the Ospedale was dedicated). The main tier was supported by a double predella. The first, similar to that of Bernardo Daddi’s S Pancrazio polyptych Giovanni da Milano.   Man of Sorrows , tempera on panel,...

Crucifix

Crucifix   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the iconoclastic controversies ( 726–843 ). Thus iconographic precedents for the suffering Christ existed in such Byzantine works as the narthex mosaic Crucifixion ( c. 1025 ) at Hosios Loukas, Phokis, and among the icons at St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai. The development of the curved body of Christ in the 13th century was often accompanied by a change in the positioning of secondary figures. In Cimabue’s Santa Croce Crucifix of c. 1285 mentioned above, for example, the figures of the Virgin and St John...

Stained glass

Stained glass   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
11,937 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Tree of Jesse window (before 1218 ) of Freiburg im Breisgau Cathedral and the windows of St Margarete, Ardagger ( 1226–41 ), used armatures that followed the medallions. Alternating round and half-round panels surrounded by wide, curving lattice, as seen in the St Catherine window ( 1180 ) of Angers Cathedral, are typical of later work. Around 1200 in France and England curvilinear armature patterns were associated with the most important programmes under construction. The choir windows at Bourges ( c. 1200–14 ), like those at Canterbury ( c. ...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Auguste . Paris: Champion, 1913. Bachrach, Bernard S . “L’art de la guerre Angevin.” In Plantagenêts et Capétiens: Confrontations et héritages , edited by Martin Aurell and Noël-Yves Tonnerre , pp. 267–284. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2006. Bachrach, Bernard S . Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987–1040 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Bachrach, Bernard S. “ MedievalSiege Warfare: A Reconnaissance. ” Journal of Military History 58, no. 1 (January 1994): 119–133. Bachrach, Bernard S. Warfare and Military Organization in...

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