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Bradford Hill criteria

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form ...

Legislation

Legislation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

...been transferred to the kings, who ruled through directives ( diagrammata ) that often took the form of a letter to the cities. The text of such a letter would be ratified by the assembly of the citizenry and inscribed in stone as law (these texts have been collected by Bradford Welles ). In addition to general diagrammata , a king could also issue a specific decree in the form of a prostagma . Numerous examples from Ptolemaic times have been preserved in Egyptian papyri (and collected by Marie-Thérèse Lenger ). Even in their native Greece, the...

Conflicting Information and Message Competition in Health and Risk Messaging

Conflicting Information and Message Competition in Health and Risk Messaging   Reference library

Rebekah H. Nagler and Susan M. LoRusso

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,081 words
Illustration(s):
1

...findings. Specifically, the medical community bases its judgments on the “totality of the data” available across study designs ( Taubes, 2007 , para. 18). Sir Austin Bradford Hill ( Hill, 1971 ) and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( USPSTF, 1989 ), among others, have established criteria for causal inference in epidemiology. Some epidemiologists have argued that applying these criteria to specific nutritional epidemiologic questions, for example, would help to clarify findings that seem contradictory ( Kushi, 1999 ). While researchers and clinicians...

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits   Reference library

Faisal Nadeem, Ahmad Nawaz, and Muhammad Farooq

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,400 words
Illustration(s):
2

...soil quality and reduces soil erosion ( Nielsen & Calderon, 2011 ). Crop residue cover in fallow land serves as an organic mulch that increases the moisture contents in soil and reduces evaporation losses and provides shelter for soil against wind and water erosion ( Smart & Bradford, 1999 ; Zribi, Aragüés, Medina, & Faci, 2015 ). Fallow fields covered with residue (80%–90%) protects soil from erosion ( Kline, 2000 ) by acting as barrier against wind and high-intensity rainfall, thus increasing water infiltration, reducing soil evaporation losses (...

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